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Category: Application Notes

 

Multiphase Material using Nanoindentation NANOVEA

Metallurgy Study of Multiphase Material

Metallurgy Study of Multiphase Material using Nanoindentation

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METALLURGY STUDY
OF MULTIPHASE MATERIAL

USING NANOINDENTATION

Prepared by

DUANJIE LI, PhD & ALEXIS CELESTIN

INTRODUCTION

Metallurgy studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, as well as their intermetallic compounds and alloys. Metals that undergo working processes, such as casting, forging, rolling, extrusion and machining, experience changes in their phases, microstructure and texture. These changes result in varied physical properties including hardness, strength, toughness, ductility, and wear resistance of the material. Metallography is often applied to learn the formation mechanism of such specific phases, microstructure and texture.

MPORTANCE OF LOCAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR MATERIALS DESIGN

Advanced materials often have multiple phases in a special microstructure and texture to achieve desired mechanical properties for target applications in industrial practice. Nanoindentation is widely applied to measure the mechanical behaviors of materials at small scales i ii. However, it is challenging and time-consuming to precisely select specific locations for indentation in a very small area. A reliable and user-friendly procedure of nanoindentation testing is in demand to determine the mechanical properties of different phases of a material with high precision and timely measurements.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we measure mechanical properties of a multiphase metallurgical sample using the Most Powerful Mechanical Tester: the NANOVEA PB1000.

Here, we showcase the capacity of the PB1000 in performing nanoindentation measurements on multiple phases (grains) of a large sample surface with high precision and user friendliness using our Advanced Position Controller.

NANOVEA

PB1000

TEST CONDITIONS

In this study, we use a metallurgical sample with multiple phases. The sample had been polished to a mirror-like surface finish before the indentation tests. Four phases have been identified in the sample, namely PHASE 1, PHASE 2, PHASE 3 and PHASE 4 as shown below.

The Advanced Stage Controller is an intuitive sample navigation tool which automatically adjusts the speed of sample movement under the optical microscope based on position of the mouse. The further the mouse is away from the center of field of view, the faster the stage moves toward the mouse’s direction. This provides a user-friendly method to navigate the entire sample surface and select the intended location for mechanical testing. The coordinates of the test locations are saved and numbered, along with their individual test setups, such as loads, loading/unloading rate, number of tests in a map, etc. Such a test procedure allows users to examine a large sample surface for specific areas of interest for indentation and perform all the indentation tests at different locations in one time, making it an ideal tool for mechanical testing of metallurgical samples with multiple phases.

In this study, we located the specific phases of the sample under the optical microscope integrated in the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester as numbered on FIGURE 1. The coordinates of the selected locations are saved, followed by automatic nanoindentation tests all at once under the test conditions summarized below

FIGURE 1: SELECTING NANOINDENTATION LOCATION ON THE SAMPLE SURFACE.
RESULTS: NANOINDENTATIONS ON DIFFERENT PHASES

The indentations at the different phases of the sample are displayed below. We demonstrate that the excellent position control of the sample stage in the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester allows users to precisely pinpoint the target location for mechanical properties testing.

The representative load-displacement curves of the indentations are shown in FIGURE 2, and the corresponding hardness and Young’s Modulus calculated using Oliver and Pharr Methodiii are summarized and
compared in
FIGURE 3.


The
PHASES 1, 2, 3 and 4 possess an average hardness of ~5.4, 19.6, 16.2 and 7.2 GPa, respectively. The
relatively small size for
PHASES 2 contributes to its higher standard deviation of the hardness and Young’s
Modulus values.

FIGURE 2: LOAD-DISPLACEMENT CURVES
OF THE NANOINDENTATIONS
FIGURE 2: HARDNESS & YOUNG’S MODULUS
OF DIFFERENT PHASES

CONCLUSION

In this study, we showcased the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester performing nanoindentation measurements on multiple phases of a large metallurgical sample using the Advanced Stage Controller. The precise position control allows users to easily navigate a large sample surface and directly select the areas of interest for nanoindentation measurements.

The location coordinates of all the indentations are saved and then performed consecutively. Such a test procedure makes measurement of the local mechanical properties at small scales, e.g. the multi-phase metal sample in this study, substantially less time-consuming and more user friendly. The hard PHASES 2, 3 and 4 improve the mechanical properties of the sample, possessing an average hardness of ~19.6, 16.2 and 7.2 GPa, respectively, compared to ~5.4 GPa for PHASE 1.

The Nano, Micro or Macro modules of the instrument all include ISO and ASTM compliant indentation, scratch and wear tester modes, providing the widest and most user friendly range of testing available in a single system. NANOVEA‘s unmatched range is an ideal solution for determining the full range of mechanical properties of thin or thick, soft or hard coatings, films and substrates, including hardness, Young’s modulus, fracture toughness, adhesion, wear resistance and many others.

i Oliver, W. C.; Pharr, G. M., Journal of Materials Research., Volume 19, Issue 1, Jan 2004, pp.3-20
ii Schuh, C.A., Materials Today, Volume 9, Issue 5, May 2006, pp. 32–40
iii Oliver, W. C.; Pharr, G. M., Journal of Materials Research, Volume 7, Issue 6, June 1992, pp.1564-1583

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Contour Measurement using Profilometer by NANOVEA

Rubber Tread Contour Measurement

Rubber Tread Contour Measurement

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RUBBER TREAD CONTOUR MEASUREMENT

USING 3D OPTICAL PROFILER

Rubber Tread Contour Measurement - NANOVEA Profiler

Prepared by

ANDREA HERRMANN

INTRODUCTION

Like all materials, rubber’s coefficient of friction is related in part to its surface roughness. In vehicle tire applications, traction with the road is very important. Surface roughness and the tire’s treads both play a role in this. In this study, the rubber surface and tread’s roughness and dimensions are analyzed.

* THE SAMPLE

IMPORTANCE

OF 3D NON-CONTACT PROFILOMETRY

FOR RUBBER STUDIES

Unlike other techniques such as touch probes or interferometry, NANOVEA’s 3D Non-Contact Optical Profilers use axial chromatism to measure nearly any surface. 

The Profiler system’s open staging allows for a wide variety of sample sizes and requires zero sample preparation. Nano through macro range features can be detected during a single scan with zero influence from sample reflectivity or absorption. Plus, these profilers have the advanced ability to measure high surface angles without requiring software manipulation of results.

Easily measure any material: transparent, opaque, specular, diffusive, polished, rough etc. The measurement technique of the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Profilers provides an ideal, broad and user friendly capability to maximize surface studies along with the benefits of combined 2D & 3D capability.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we showcase the NANOVEA ST400, a 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler measuring the surface and treads of a rubber tire.

A sample surface area large enough to represent the entire tire surface was selected at random for this study. 

To quantify the rubber’s characteristics, we used the NANOVEA Ultra 3D analysis software to measure the contour dimensions, depth, roughness and developed area of the surface.

NANOVEA

ST400

ANALYSIS: TIRE TREAD

The 3D View and False Color View of the treads show the value of mapping 3D surface designs. It provides users a straightforward tool to directly observe the size and shape of the treads from different angles. The Advanced Contour Analysis and Step Height Analysis are both extremely powerful tools for measuring precise dimensions of sample shapes and design

ADVANCED CONTOUR ANALYSIS

STEP HEIGHT ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS: RUBBER SURFACE

The rubber surface can be quantified in numerous ways using built-in software tools as shown in the following figures as examples. It can be observed that the surface roughness is 2.688 μm, and the developed area vs. projected area is 9.410 mm² vs. 8.997 mm². This information allows us to examine the relationship between surface finish and the traction of different rubber formulations or even rubber with varying degrees of surface wear.

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have shown how the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler can precisely characterize the surface roughness and tread dimensions of rubber.

The data shows a surface roughness of 2.69 ­µm and a developed area of 9.41 mm² with a projected area of 9 mm². Various dimensions and radii of the rubber treads were measured as well.

The information presented in this study can be used to compare the performance of rubber tires with di­fferent tread designs, formulations, or varying degrees of wear. The data shown here represents only a portion of the calculations available in the Ultra 3D analysis software.

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In-Situ Wear Measurement at High Temperature

In-Situ Wear Measurement at High Temperature

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IN-SITU WEAR MEASUREMENT AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

USING TRIBOMETER

IN-SITU WEAR MEASUREMENT Aerospace Tribometer

Prepared by

Duanjie Li, PhD

INTRODUCTION

The Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is a type of robust electrical transformer used to measure linear displacement. It has been widely used in a variety of industrial applications, including power turbines, hydraulics, automation, aircraft, satellites, nuclear reactors, and many others.

In this study, we feature the add-ons of LVDT and high temperature modules of the NANOVEA Tribometer which allow the change of wear track depth of the tested sample to be measured during the wear process at elevated temperatures. This enables users to correlate different stages of wear process with the evolution of COF, which is critical in improving fundamental understanding of the wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of the materials for high temperature applications.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this study. we would like to showcase the capacity of NANOVEA T50 Tribometer for in-situ monitoring the evolution of the wear process of materials at elevated temperatures.

The wear process of the alumina silicate ceramic at different temperatures is simulated in a controlled and monitored manner.

NANOVEA

T50

TEST PROCEDURE

The tribological behavior, e. g. coefficient of friction, COF, and wear resistance of alumina silicate ceramic plates was evaluated by the NANOVEA Tribometer. The alumina silicate ceramic plate was heated up by a furnace from room temperature, RT, to elevated temperatures (400°C and 800°C), followed by the wear tests at such temperatures. 

For comparison, the wear tests were carried out when the sample cooled down from 800°C to 400°C and then to room temperature. An AI2O3 ball tip (6mm dia., Grade 100) was applied against the tested samples. The COF, wear depth and temperature were monitored in-situ.

TEST PARAMETERS

of the pin-on-disk measurement

Tribometer LVDT Sample

The wear rate, K, was evaluated using the formula K=V/(Fxs)=A/(Fxn), where V is the worn volume, F is the normal load, s is the sliding distance, A is the cross-sectional area of the wear track, and n is the number of revolution. Surface roughness and wear track profiles were evaluated by the NANOVEA Optical Profiler, and the wear track morphology was examined using an optical microscope.

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The COF and wear track depth recorded in-situ are shown in FIGURE 1 and FIGURE 2, respectively. In FIGURE 1, “-I” indicates the test performed when the temperature was increased from RT to an elevated temperature. “-D” represents the temperature decreased from a higher temperature of 800°C.

As shown in FIGURE 1, the samples tested at different temperatures exhibit a comparable COF of ~0.6 throughout the measurements. Such a high COF leads to an accelerated wear process which creates a substantial amount of debris. The wear track depth was monitored during the wear tests by LVDT as shown in FIGURE 2. The tests performed at room temperature before sample heating up and after sample cooling down show that the alumina silicate ceramic plate exhibits a progressive wear process at RT, the wear track depth gradually increases throughout the wear test to ~170 and ~150 μm, respectively. 

In comparison, the wear tests at elevated temperatures (400°C and 800°C) exhibit a different wear behavior – the wear track depth increases promptly at the beginning of the wear process, and it slows down as the test continues. The wear track depths for tests performed at temperatures 400°C-I, 800°C and 400°C-D are ~140, ~350 and ~210 μm, respectively.

COF during pin-on-desk Tests at different temperatures

FIGURE 1. Coefficient of Friction during pin-on-desk tests at different temperatures

Wear track depth of the alumina silicate ceramic plate at different temperatures

FIGURE 2. Evolution of wear track depth of the alumina silicate ceramic plate at different temperatures

The average wear rate and wear track depth of the alumina silicate ceramic plates at different temperatures were measured using NANOVEA Optical Profiler as summarized in FIGURE 3. The wear track depth is in agreement with that recorded using LVDT. The alumina silicate ceramic plate shows a substantially increased wear rate of ~0.5 mm3/Nm at 800°C, compared to the wear rates below 0.2mm3/N at temperatures below 400°C. The alumina silicate ceramic plate does not exhibit significantly enhanced mechanical/tribological properties after the short heating process, possessing a comparable wear rate before and after the heat treatment.

Alumina silicate ceramic, also knows as lava and wonderstone, is soft and machinable before heating treatment. A long process of firing at elevated temperatures up to 1093°C can substantially enhance its hardness and strength, after which diamond machining is required. Such a unique characteristic makes alumina silicate ceramic an ideal material for sculpture.

In this study, we show that heat treatment at a lower temperature that the one required for firing (800°C vs 1093°C) in a short time does not improve the mechanical and tribological characteristics of alumina silicate ceramic, making proper firing an essential process for this material before its usage in the real applications.


Wear rate and wear track depth of the sample at different temperatures 1

FIGURE 3. Wear rate and wear track depth of the sample at different temperatures

CONCLUSION

Based on the comprehensive tribological analysis in this study, we show that the alumina silicate ceramic plate exhibits comparable coefficient of friction at different temperatures from room temperature to 800°C. However, it shows a substantially increased wear rate of ~0.5 mm3/Nm at 800°C, demonstrating the importance of proper heat treatment of this ceramic.

NANOVEA Tribometers are capable of evaluating the tribological properties of materials for applications at high temperatures up to 1000°C. The function of in-situ COF and wear track depth measurements allows users to correlate different stages of wear process with the evolution of COF, which is critical in improving fundamental understanding of the wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of the materials used at elevated temperatures.

NANOVEA Tribometers offer precise and repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional high temperature wear, lubrication and tribo-corrosion modules available in one pre-integrated system. NANOVEA’s unmatched range is an ideal solution for determining the full range of tribological properties of thin or thick, soft or hard coatings, films and substrates.

Optional 3D Non-Contact Profilers are available for high resolution 3D imaging of wear tracks in addition to other surface measurements such as roughness.

IN-SITU WEAR MEASUREMENT

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Fish Scale Surface Analysis Using 3D Optical Profiler

Fish Scale Surface Analysis Using 3D Optical Profiler

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FISH SCALE SURFACE ANALYSIS

using 3D OPTICAL PROFILER

Fish Scales profilometer

Prepared by

Andrea Novitsky

INTRODUCTION

The morphology, patterns, and other features of a fish scale are studied using the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler. The delicate nature of this biological sample along with its very small and high angled grooves also highlights the importance of the profiler’s non-contact technique. The grooves on the scale are called circuli, and can be studied to estimate the age of the fish, and even distinguish periods of different rates of growth, similar to the rings of a tree. This is very important information for the management of wild fish populations in order to prevent overfishing.

Importance of 3D Non-Contact Profilometry FOR BIOLOGICAL STUDIES

Unlike other techniques such as touch probes or interferometry, the 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler, using axial chromatism, can measure nearly any surface. Sample sizes can vary widely due to open staging and there is no sample preparation needed. Nano through macro range features are obtained during a surface profile measurement with zero influence from sample reflectivity or absorption. The instrument provides an advanced ability to measure high surface angles with no software manipulation of the results. Any material can be easily measured, whether it’s transparent, opaque, specular, diffusive, polished or rough. The technique provides an ideal, broad and user friendly capability to maximize surface studies along with the benefits of combined 2D & 3D capabilities.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we showcase NANOVEA ST400, a 3D Non-Contact Profiler with a high-speed sensor, providing comprehensive analysis of the surface of a scale.

The instrument has been used to scan the entire sample, along with a higher resolution scan of the center area. The outer and inner side surface roughness of the scale was measured for comparison as well.

NANOVEA

ST400

3D & 2D Surface Characterization of Outer Scale

The 3D View and False Color View of the outer scale show a complex structure similar to a finger print or the rings of a tree. This provides users a straightforward tool to directly observe the surface characterization of the scale from different angles. Various other measurements of the outer scale are shown along with the comparison of the outer and inner side of the scale.

Fish Scale Scan 3D View Profilometer
Fish Scale Scan Volume 3D Profilometer
Fish Scale Scan Step Height 3D Optical Profiler

SURFACE ROUGHNESS COMPARISON

Fish Scale Profilometer 3D Scanning

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have shown how the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler can characterize a fish scale in a variety of ways. 

The outer and inner surfaces of the scale can be easily distinguished by surface roughness alone, with roughness values of 15.92μm and 1.56μm respectively. Additionally, precise and accurate information can be learned about a fish scale by analyzing the grooves, or circuli, on the outer surface of the scale. The distance of bands of circuli from the center focus were measured, and the height of the circuli were also found to be approximately 58μm high on average. 

The data shown here represents only a portion of the calculations available in the analysis software.

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DMA Frequency Sweep on Polymer Using Nanoindentation

DMA Frequency Sweep on Polymer Using Nanonindentation

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DMA FREQUENCY SWEEP

ON POLYMER USING NANOINDENTATION

Prepared by

Duanjie Li, PhD

INTRODUCTION

IMPORTANCE OF DMA FREQUENCY SWEEP TEST

The changing frequency of the stress often leads to variations in the complex modulus, which is a critical mechanical property of polymers. For example, tires are subjected to cyclical high deformations when vehicles are running on the road. The frequency of the pressure and deformation changes as the car accelerates to higher speeds. Such a change can result in variation in the viscoelastic properties of the tire, which are important factors in the car performance. A reliable and repeatable test of the viscoelastic behavior of polymers at different frequencies is in need. The Nano module of the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester generates sinusoidal load by a high precision piezo actuator and directly measures the evolution of force and displacement using ultrasensitive load cell and capacitor. The combination of easy setup and high accuracy makes it an ideal tool for DMA frequency sweep.

Viscoelastic materials exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation. Long molecular chains in polymer materials contribute to their unique viscoelastic properties, i.e. a combination of the characteristics of both elastic solids and Newtonian fluids. Stress, temperature, frequency and other factors all play roles in the viscoelastic properties. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, also known as DMA, studies the viscoelastic behavior and complex modulus of the material by applying a sinusoidal stress and measuring the change of strain.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we study viscoelastic properties of a polished tire sample at different DMA frequencies using the Most Powerful Mechanical Tester, NANOVEA PB1000, in Nanoindentation mode.

NANOVEA

PB1000

TEST CONDITIONS

FREQUENCIES (Hz):

0.1, 1.5, 10, 20

CREEP TIME AT EACH FREQ.

50 sec

OSCILLATION VOLTAGE

0.1 V

LOADING VOLTAGE

1 V

indenter type

Spherical

Diamond | 100 μm

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The DMA frequency sweep at the maximum load allows a fast and simple measurement on the viscoelastic characteristics of the sample at different loading frequencies in one test. The phase shift and the amplitudes of the load and displacement waves at different frequencies can be used to calculate a variety of fundamental material viscoelastic properties, including Storage Modulus, Loss Modulus and Tan (δ) as summarized in the following graphs. 

Frequencies of 1, 5, 10 and 20 Hz in this study, correspond to speeds of about 7, 33, 67 and 134 km per hour. As the test frequency increases from 0.1 to 20 Hz, it can be observed that both Storage Modulus and Loss Modulus progressively increase. Tan (δ) decreases from ~0.27 to 0.18 as the frequency increases from 0.1 to 1 Hz, and then it gradually increases to ~0.55 when the frequency of 20 Hz is reached. DMA frequency sweep allows measuring the trends of Storage Modulus, Loss Modulus and Tan (δ), which provide information on the movement of the monomers and cross-linking as well as the glass transition of polymers. By raising the temperature using a heating plate during the frequency sweep, a more complete picture of the nature of the molecular motion under different test conditions can be obtained.

EVOLUTION OF LOAD & DEPTH

OF THE FULL DMA FREQUENCY SWEEP

LOAD & DEPTH vs TIME AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES

STORAGE MODULUS

AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES

LOSS MODULUS

AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES

TAN (δ)

AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES

CONCLUSION

In this study, we showcased the capacity of the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester in performing the DMA frequency sweep test on a tire sample. This test measures the viscoelastic properties of the tire at different frequencies of stress. The tire shows increased storage and loss modulus as the loading frequency increases from 0.1 to 20 Hz. It provides useful information on the viscoelastic behaviors of the tire running at different speeds, which is essential in improving the performance of tires for smoother and safer rides. The DMA frequency sweep test can be performed at various temperatures to mimic the realistic working environment of the tire under different weather.

In the Nano Module of the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester, the load application with the fast piezo is independent from the load measurement done by a separate high sensitivity strain gage. This gives a distinct advantage during DMA since the phase between depth and load is measured directly from the data collected from the sensor. The calculation of phase is direct and does not need mathematical modeling that adds inaccuracy to the resulting loss and storage modulus. This is not the case for a coil-based system.

In conclusion, DMA measures loss and storage modulus, complex modulus and Tan (δ) as a function of contact depth, time and frequency. Optional heating stage allows determination of materials phase transition temperature during DMA. The NANOVEA Mechanical Testers provide unmatched multi-function Nano and Micro modules on a single platform. Both the Nano and Micro modules include scratch tester, hardness tester and wear tester modes, providing the widest and most user friendly range of testing available on a single module.

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Fresnel Lens Topography

Fresnel Lens Dimensions Using 3D Profilometry

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FRESNEL LENS

DIMENSIONS USING 3D PROFILOMETRY

Prepared by

Duanjie Li & Benjamin Mell

INTRODUCTION

A lens is an optical device of axial symmetry that transmits and
refracts light. A simple lens consists of a single optical component
for converging or diverging the light. Even though spherical surfaces are not ideal shape for making a lens, they are often used as the simplest shape which glass can be ground and polished to.

A Fresnel lens consists of a series of concentric rings, which are
thin parts of a simple lens with a width as small as a few thousandths of an inch. Fresnel lenses contain a large aperture and short focal length, with a compact design reducing the weight and volume of material required, compared to conventional lenses with the same optical properties. A very small amount of light is lost by absorption due to the thin geometry of the Fresnel lens.

IMPORTANCE OF 3D NON-CONTACT PROFILOMETRY
FOR FRESNEL LENS INSPECTION

Fresnel lenses are extensively employed in the automotive industry, lighthouses, solar energy and optical landing systems for
aircraft carriers. Molding or stamping the lenses out of transparent plastics can make their production cost-effective. Service quality of Fresnel lenses mostly depends on the precision and surface
quality of their concentric ring. Unlike a touch probe technique,
NANOVEA Optical Profilers perform 3D surface measurements
without touching the surface, avoiding the risk of making new
scratches. The Chromatic Light technique is ideal for precise scanning of complex shapes, such as lenses of different geometries.

 

FRESNEL LENS SCHEMATIC

Transparent plastic Fresnel lenses can be manufactured by molding or stamping. Accurate and efficient quality control is critical to reveal defective production molds or stamps. By measuring the height and pitch of the concentric rings, production variations can be detected by comparing the measured values against the specification values given by the manufacturer of the lens.

Precise measurement of the lens profile ensures that the molds or stamps are properly machined to fit manufacturer specifications. Moreover, the stamp could progressively wear out over time, causing it to lose its initial shape. Consistent deviation from the lens manufacturer specification is a positive indication that the mold needs to be replaced.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we showcase NANOVEA ST400, a 3D Non-Contact Profiler with a high-speed sensor, providing comprehensive 3D profile analysis of an optical component of a complex shape.

To demonstrate the remarkable capabilities of our Chromatic Light technology, the contour analysis is performed on a Fresnel lens.

NANOVEA

ST400

The 2.3” x 2.3” acrylic Fresnel lens used for this study consists of 

a series of concentric rings and a complex serrated cross-section profile. 

It has a 1.5” focal length, 2.0” effective size diameter, 

125 grooves per inch, and an index of refraction of 1.49.

The NANOVEA ST400 scan of the Fresnel lens shows a noticeable increase in height of the concentric rings, moving outward from the center.

2D FALSE COLOR

Height Representation

3D VIEW

EXTRACTED PROFILE

PEAK & VALLEY

Dimensional Analysis of the Profile

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have showcased that the NANOVEA ST400 non-contact Optical Profiler accurately measures the surface topography of Fresnel lenses. 

The dimension of the height and pitch can be accurately determined from the complex serrated profile using NANOVEA analysis software. Users can effectively inspect the quality of the production molds or stamps by comparing the ring height and pitch dimensions of manufactured lenses against the ideal ring specification.

The data shown here represents only a portion of the calculations available in the analysis software. 

NANOVEA Optical Profilers measure virtually any surface in fields including Semiconductors, Microelectronics, Solar, Fiber Optics, Automotive, Aerospace, Metallurgy, Machining, Coatings, Pharmaceutical, Biomedical, Environmental and many others.


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Machined Parts Inspection

Machined Parts Inspection from CAD models using 3D profilometry

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MACHINED PARTS

inspection from CAD model using 3D profilometry

Author:

Duanjie Li, PhD

Revised by

Jocelyn Esparza

Machined Parts Inspection with a Profilometer
Machined Parts Quality Control Profilometry

INTRODUCTION

The demand for precision machining able to create complex geometries has been on the rise across a spectrum of industries. From aerospace, medical and automobile, to tech gears, machinery and musical instruments, the continuous innovation and evolution push expectations and accuracy standards to new heights. Consequently, we see the rise of the demand for rigorous inspection techniques and instruments to ensure the highest quality of the products.

Importance of 3D Non-Contact Profilometry for Parts Inspection

Comparing properties of machined parts to their CAD models is essential to verify tolerances and adherence to production standards. Inspection during the service time is also crucial as wear and tear of the parts may call for their replacement. Identification of any deviations from the required specifications in a timely manner will help avoid costly repairs, production halts and tarnished reputation.

Unlike a touch probe technique, the NANOVEA Optical Profilers perform 3D surface scans with zero contact, allowing for quick, precise and non-destructive measurements of complex shapes with the highest accuracy.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we showcase NANOVEA HS2000, a 3D Non-Contact Profiler with a high-speed sensor, performing a comprehensive surface inspection of dimension, radius, and roughness. 

All in under 40 seconds.

NANOVEA

HS2000

CAD MODEL

A precise measurement of the dimension and surface roughness of the machined part is critical to make sure it meets the desired specifications, tolerances and surface finishes. The 3D model and the engineering drawing of the part to be inspected are presented below. 

FALSE COLOR VIEW

The false color view of the CAD model and the scanned machined part surface are compared in FIGURE 3. The height variation on the sample surface can be observed by the change in color.

Three 2D profiles are extracted from the 3D surface scan as indicated in FIGURE 2 to further verify the dimensional tolerance of the machined part.

PROFILES COMPARISON & RESULTS

Profile 1 through 3 are shown in FIGURE 3 through 5. Quantitative tolerance inspection is carried out by comparing the measured profile with the CAD model to uphold rigorous manufacturing standards. Profile 1 and Profile 2 measure the radius of different areas on the curved machined part. The height variation of Profile 2 is 30 µm over a length of 156 mm which meets the desired ±125 µm tolerance requirement. 

By setting up a tolerance limit value, the analysis software can automatically determine pass or fail of the machined part.

Machine Parts Inspection with a Profilometer

The roughness and uniformity of the machined part’s surface play an important role in ensuring its quality and functionality. FIGURE 6 is an extracted surface area from the parent scan of the machined part which was used to quantify the surface finish. The average surface roughness (Sa) was calculated to be 2.31 µm.

CONCLUSION

In this study, we have showcased how the NANOVEA HS2000 Non-Contact Profiler equipped with a high speed sensor performs comprehensive surface inspection of dimensions and roughness. 

High-resolution scans enable users to measure detailed morphology and surface features of machined parts and to quantitatively compare them with their CAD models. The instrument is also capable of detecting any defects including scratches and cracks. 

The advanced contour analysis serves as an unparalleled tool not only to determine whether the machined parts satisfy the set specifications, but also to evaluate the failure mechanisms of the worn components.

The data shown here represents only a portion of the calculations possible with the advanced analysis software that comes equipped with every NANOVEA Optical Profiler.

 

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Pharmaceutical Tablets: Inspecting Roughness Using 3D Profilometers

Pharmaceutical Tablets: Inspecting Roughness using 3D Profilometers

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Pharmaceutical Tablets

Inspecting Roughness using 3d profilometers

Author:

Jocelyn Esparza

Introduction

Pharmaceutical tablets are the most popular medicinal dosage used today. Each tablet is made up by a combination of active substances (the chemicals that produce pharmacological effect) and inactive substances (disintegrant, binder, lubricant, diluent – usually in the form of powder). The active and inactive substances are then compressed or molded into a solid. Then, depending on the manufacturer specifications, the tablets
are either coated or uncoated.

To be effective, tablet coatings need to follow the fine contours of embossed logos or characters on tablets, they need to be stable and sturdy enough to survive handling of the tablet, and they must not cause the tablets to stick to each other during the coating process. Current tablets typically have a polysaccharide and polymer-based coating which include substances like pigments and plasticizers. The two most common types of table coatings are film coatings and sugar coating. Compared to sugar coatings, film coatings are less bulky, more durable, and are less time-consuming to prepare and apply. However, film coatings have more difficulty hiding tablet appearance.

Tablet coatings are essential for moisture protection, masking the taste of the ingredients, and making the tablets easier to swallow. More importantly, the tablet coating controls the location and the rate in which the drug is released.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we use the NANOVEA Optical Profiler and advanced Mountains software to measure and quantify the topography of various name brand pressed pills (1 coated and 2 uncoated) to compare their surface roughness.

It is assumed that Advil (coated) will have the lowest surface roughness due to the protective coating it has.

NANOVEA

HS2000

Test Conditions

Three batches of name brand pharmaceutical pressed tablets were scanned with the Nanovea HS2000
using High-Speed Line Sensor to measure various surface roughness parameters according to ISO 25178.

Scan Area

2 x 2 mm

Lateral Scan Resolution

5 x 5 μm

Scan Time

4 sec

Samples

Results & Discussion

After scanning the tablets, a surface roughness study was conducted with the advanced Mountains analysis software to calculate the surface average, root-mean-square, and maximum height of each tablet.

The calculated values support the assumption that Advil has a lower surface roughness due to the protective coating encasing its ingredients. Tylenol shows to have the highest surface roughness out of all three measured tablets.

A 2D and 3D height map of each tablet’s surface topography was produced which show the height distributions measured. One out of the five tablets were selected to represent the height maps for each brand. These height maps make a great tool for visual detection of outlying surface features such as pits or peaks.

Conclusion

In this study, we analyzed and compared the surface roughness of three name brand pressed pharmaceutical pills: Advil, Tylenol, and Excedrin. Advil proved to have the lowest average surface roughness. This can be attributed to the presence of the orange coating incasing the drug. In contrast, both Excedrin and Tylenol lack coatings, however, their surface roughness still differ from each other. Tylenol proved to have the highest average surface roughness out of all the tablets studied.

Using the NANOVEA HS2000 with High-Speed Line Sensor, we were able to measure 5 tablets in less than 1 minute. This can prove to be useful for quality control testing of hundreds of pills in a production today.

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Comparing Abrasion Wear on Denim

Introduction

The form and function of a fabric is determined by its quality and durability. Daily usage of fabrics cause wear and tear on the material, e.g. piling, fuzzing, and discoloration. Subpar fabric quality used for clothing can often lead to consumer dissatisfaction and brand damage.

Attempting to quantify the mechanical properties of fabrics can pose many challenges. The yarn structure and even the factory in which it was produced can result in poor reproducibility of test results. Making it difficult to compare test results from different laboratories. Measuring the wear performance of fabrics is critical to the manufacturers, distributors, and retailers in the textile production chain. A well controlled and reproducible wear resistance measurement is crucial to ensure reliable quality control of the fabric.

Click to read the full application note!

Mechanical Broadview Map Selection Tool

We’ve all heard the term, time is money. Which is why many companies constantly seek methods of expediting and improving various processes, it saves time. When it comes to indentation testing, speed, efficiency and precision can be integrated into a quality control or R&D process when using one of our Nanovea Mechanical Testers. In this application note, we will be showcasing an easy way of saving time with our Nanovea Mechanical Tester and Broad View Map and Selection Tool software features.

Click to read the full application note!

Altmann S.A. Importação e Comércio

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