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Category: Profilometry | Roughness and Finish

 

Processed Leather Surface Finish using 3D Profilometry

PROCESSED LEATHER

SURFACE FINISH USING 3D PROFILOMETRY

Prepared by

CRAIG LEISING

INTRODUCTION

Once the tanning process of a leather hide is complete the leather surface can undergo several finishing processes for a variety of looks and touch. These mechanical processes can include stretching, buffing, sanding, embossing, coating etc. Dependent upon the end use of the leather some may require a more precise, controlled and repeatable processing.

IMPORTANCE OF PROFILOMETRY INSPECTION FOR R&D AND QUALITY CONTROL

Due to the large variation and unreliability of visual inspection methods, tools that are capable of accurately quantifying micro and nano scales features can improve leather finishing processes. Understanding the surface finish of leather in a quantifiable sense can lead to improved data driven surface processing selection to achieve optimal finish results. NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Profilometers utilize chromatic confocal technology to measure finished leather surfaces and offer the highest repeatability and accuracy in the market. Where other techniques fail to provide reliable data, due to probe contact, surface variation, angle, absorption or reflectivity, NANOVEA Profilometers succeed.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, the NANOVEA ST400 is used to measure and compare the surface finish of two different but closely processed leather samples. Several surface parameters are automatically calculated from the surface profile.

Here we will focus on surface roughness, dimple depth, dimple pitch and dimple diameter for comparative evaluation.

NANOVEA

ST400

RESULTS: SAMPLE 1

ISO 25178

HEIGHT PARAMETERS

OTHER 3D PARAMETERS

RESULTS: SAMPLE 2

ISO 25178

HEIGHT PARAMETERS

OTHER 3D PARAMETERS

DEPTH COMPARATIVE

Depth distribution for each sample.
A large number of deep dimples were observed in
SAMPLE 1.

PITCH COMPARATIVE

Pitch between dimples on SAMPLE 1 is slightly smaller
than
SAMPLE 2, but both have a similar distribution

 MEAN DIAMETER COMPARATIVE

Similar distributions of mean diameter of dimples,
with
SAMPLE 1 showing slightly smaller mean diameters on average.

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have shown how the NANOVEA ST400 3D Profilometer can precisely characterize the surface finish of processed leather. In this study, having the ability to measure surface roughness, dimple depth, dimple pitch and dimple diameter allowed us to quantify differences between the finish and quality of the two samples that may not be obvious by visual inspection.

Overall there were no visible difference in the appearance of the 3D scans between SAMPLE 1 and SAMPLE 2. However, in the statistical analysis there is a clear distinction between the two samples. SAMPLE 1 contains a higher quantity of dimples with smaller diameters, larger depths and smaller dimple-to-dimple pitch in comparison to SAMPLE 2.

Please note that additional studies are available. Special areas of interest could have been further analyzed with an integrated AFM or Microscope module. NANOVEA 3D Profilometer speeds range from 20 mm/s to 1 m/s for laboratory or research to meet the needs of high-speed inspection; can be built with custom sizing, speeds, scanning capabilities, Class 1 clean room compliance, indexing conveyor or for in-line or online integration.

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Mechanical Properties of Hydrogel

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEL

USING NANOINDENTATION

Prepared by

DUANJIE LI, PhD & JORGE RAMIREZ

INTRODUCTION

Hydrogel is known for its super absorbency of water allowing for a close resemblance in flexibility as natural tissues. This resemblance has made hydrogel a common choice not only in biomaterials, but also in electronics, environment and consumer good applications such as contact lens. Each unique application requires specific hydrogel mechanical properties.

IMPORTANCE OF NANOINDENTATION FOR HYDROGEL

Hydrogels create unique challenges for Nanoindentation such as test parameters selection and sample preparation. Many nanoindentation systems have major limitations since they were not originally designed for such soft materials. Some of the nanoindentation systems use a coil/magnet assembly to apply force on the sample. There is no actual force measurement, leading to inaccurate and non-linear loading when testing soft materials. Determining the point of contact is extremely difficult as the depth is the only parameter actually being measured. It is almost impossible to observe the change of slope in the Depth vs Time plot during the period when the indenter tip is approaching the hydrogel material.

In order to overcome the limitations of these systems, the nano module of the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester measures the force feedback with an individual load cell to ensure high accuracy on all types of materials, soft or hard. The piezo-controlled displacement is extremely precise and fast. This allows unmatched measurement of viscoelastic properties by eliminating many theoretical assumptions that systems with a coil/magnet assembly and no force feedback must account for.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester, in Nanoindentation mode, is used to study the hardness, elastic modulus and creep of a hydrogel sample.

NANOVEA

PB1000

TEST CONDITIONS

A hydrogel sample placed on a glass slide was tested by nanoindentation technique using a NANOVEA Mechanical Tester. For this soft material a 3 mm diameter spherical tip was used. The load linearly increased from 0.06 to 10 mN during the loading period. The creep was then measured by the change of indentation depth at the maximum load of 10 mN for 70 seconds.

APPROACH SPEED: 100 μm/min

CONTACT LOAD
0.06 mN
MAX LOAD
10 mN
LOADING RATE

20 mN/min

CREEP
70 s
RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The evolution of the load and depth as a function of time is shown in FUGURE 1. It can be observed that on
the plot of the
Depth vs Time, it is very difficult to determine the point of the change of slope at the
beginning of the loading period, which usually works as an indication where the indenter starts to contact the
soft material. However, the plot of the
Load vs Time shows the peculiar behavior of the hydrogel under an
applied load. As the hydrogel begins to get in touch with the ball indenter, the hydrogel pulls the ball indenter
due to its surface tension, which tends to decrease the surface area. This behavior leads to the negative
measured load at the beginning of the loading stage. The load progressively increases as the indenter sinks
into the hydrogel, and it is then controlled to be constant at the maximum load of 10 mN for 70 seconds to
study the creep behavior of the hydrogel.

FIGURE 1: Evolution of the load and depth as a function of Time.

The plot of the Creep Depth vs Time is shown in
FIGURE 2, and the Load vs. Displacement plot of the nanoindenation test is shown in FIGURE 3. The hydrogel in this study possesses a hardness of 16.9 KPa and a Young’s modulus of 160.2 KPa, as calculated based on the load displacement curve using the Oliver-Pharr method.

Creep is an important factor for the study of a hydrogel’s mechanical properties. The close-loop feedback control between piezo and ultrasensitive load cell ensures a true constant loading during the creep time at the maximum load. As shown in FIGURE 2, the hydrogel subsides ~42 μm as a result of creep in 70 seconds under the 10 mN maximum load applied by the 3 mm ball tip.

FIGURE 2: Creeping at a max load of 10 mN for 70 seconds.

FIGURE 3: The Load vs. Displacement plot of the hydrogel.

CONCLUSION

In this study, we showcased that the NANOVEA Mechanical Tester, in Nanoindentation mode, provides a precise and repeatable measurement of a hydrogel’s mechanical properties including hardness, Young’s modulus and creep. The large 3 mm ball tip ensures proper contact against the hydrogel surface. The high precision motorized sample stage allows for accurate positioning of the flat face of the hydrogel sample under the ball tip. The hydrogel in this study exhibits a hardness of 16.9 KPa and a Young’s modulus of 160.2 KPa. The creep depth is ~42 μm under a 10 mN load for 70 seconds.

NANOVEA Mechanical Testers provide unmatched multi-function Nano and Micro modules on a single platform. Both modules include a scratch tester, hardness tester and a wear tester mode, offering the widest and the most user friendly range of testing available on a single
system.

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Piston Wear Testing

Piston Wear Testing

Using a Tribometer

Prepared by

FRANK LIU

INTRODUCTION

Friction loss accounts for approximately 10% of total energy in fuel for a diesel engine[1]. 40-55% of the friction loss comes from the power cylinder system. The loss of energy from friction can be diminished with better understanding of the tribological interactions occurring in the power cylinder system.

A significant portion of the friction loss in the power cylinder system stems from the contact between the piston skirt and the cylinder liner. The interaction between the piston skirt, lubricant, and cylinder interfaces is quite complex due to the constant changes in force, temperature, and speed in a real life engine. Optimizing each factor is key to obtaining optimal engine performance. This study will focus on replicating the mechanisms causing friction forces and wear at the piston skirt-lubricant-cylinder liner (P-L-C) interfaces.

 Schematic of power cylinders system and piston skirt-lubricant-cylinder liner interfaces.

[1] Bai, Dongfang. Modeling piston skirt lubrication in internal combustion engines. Diss. MIT, 2012

IMPORTANCE OF TESTING PISTONS WITH TRIBOMETERS

Motor oil is a lubricant that is well-designed for its application. In addition to the base oil, additives such as detergents, dispersants, viscosity improver (VI), anti-wear/anti-friction agents, and corrosion inhibitors are added to improve its performance. These additives affect how the oil behaves under different operating conditions. The behavior of oil affects the P-L-C interfaces and determines if significant wear from metal-metal contact or if hydrodynamic lubrication (very little wear) is occurring.

It is difficult to understand the P-L-C interfaces without isolating the area from external variables. It is more practical to simulate the event with conditions that are representative of its real-life application. The NANOVEA Tribometer is ideal for this. Equipped with multiple force sensors, depth sensor, a drop-by-drop lubricant module, and linear reciprocating stage, the NANOVEA T2000 is able to closely mimic events occurring within an engine block and obtain valuable data to better understand the P-L-C interfaces.

Liquid Module on the NANOVEA T2000 Tribometer

The drop-by-drop module is crucial for this study. Since pistons can move at a very fast rate (above 3000 rpm), it is difficult to create a thin film of lubricant by submerging the sample. To remedy this issue, the drop-by-drop module is able to consistently apply a constant amount of lubricant onto the piston skirt surface.

Application of fresh lubricant also removes concern of dislodged wear contaminants influencing the lubricant’s properties.

NANOVEA T2000

High Load Tribometer

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

The piston skirt-lubricant-cylinder liner interfaces will be studied in this report. The interfaces will be replicated by conducting a linear reciprocating wear test with drop-by-drop lubricant module.

The lubricant will be applied at room temperature and heated conditions to compare cold start and optimal operation conditions. The COF and wear rate will be observed to better understand how the interfaces behaves in real-life applications.

TEST PARAMETERS

for tribology testing on pistons

LOAD ………………………. 100 N

TEST DURATION ………………………. 30 min

SPEED ………………………. 2000 rpm

AMPLITUDE ………………………. 10 mm

TOTAL DISTANCE ………………………. 1200 m

SKIRT COATING ………………………. Moly-graphite

PIN MATERIAL ………………………. Aluminum Alloy 5052

PIN DIAMETER ………………………. 10 mm

LUBRICANT ………………………. Motor Oil (10W-30)

APPROX. FLOW RATE ………………………. 60 mL/min

TEMPERATURE ………………………. Room temp & 90°C

LINEAR RECIPROCATING TEST RESULTS

In this experiment, A5052 was used as the counter material. While engine blocks are usually made of cast aluminum such as A356, A5052 have mechanical properties similar to A356 for this simulative testing [2].

Under the testing conditions, significant wear was
observed on the piston skirt at room temperature
compared to at 90°C. The deep scratches seen on the samples suggest that contact between the static material and the piston skirt occurs frequently throughout the test. The high viscosity at room temperature may be restricting the oil from completely filling gaps at the interfaces and creating metal-metal contact. At higher temperature, the oil thins and is able to flow between the pin and the piston. As a result, significantly less wear is observed at higher temperature. FIGURE 5 shows one side of the wear scar wore significantly less than the other side. This is most likely due to the location of the oil output. The lubricant film thickness was thicker on one side than the other, causing uneven wearing.


[2] “5052 Aluminum vs 356.0 Aluminum.” MakeItFrom.com, makeitfrom.com/compare/5052-O-Aluminum/A356.0-SG70B-A13560-Cast-Aluminum

The COF of linear reciprocating tribology tests can be split into a high and low pass. High pass refers to the sample moving in the forward, or positive, direction and low pass refers to the sample moving in the reverse, or negative, direction. The average COF for the RT oil was observed to be under 0.1 for both directions. The average COF between passes were 0.072 and 0.080. The average COF of the 90°C oil was found to be different between passes. Average COF values of 0.167 and 0.09 were observed. The difference in COF gives additional proof that the oil was only able to properly wet one side of the pin. High COF was obtained when a thick film was formed between the pin and the piston skirt due to hydrodynamic lubrication occurring. Lower COF is observed in the other direction when mixed lubrication is occurring. For more information on hydrodynamic lubrication and mixed lubrication, please visit our application note on Stribeck Curves.

Table 1: Results from lubricated wear test on pistons.

FIGURE 1: COF graphs for room temperature oil wear test A raw profile B high pass C low pass.

FIGURE 2: COF graphs for 90°C wear oil test A raw profile B high pass C low pass.

FIGURE 3: Optical image of wear scar from RT motor oil wear test.

FIGURE 4: Volume of a hole analysis of wear scar from RT motor oil wear test.

FIGURE 5: Profilometry scan of wear scar from RT motor oil wear test.

FIGURE 6: Optical image of wear scar from 90°C motor oil wear test

FIGURE 7: Volume of a hole analysis of wear scar from 90°C motor oil wear test.

FIGURE 8: Profilometry scan of wear scar from 90°C motor oil wear test.

CONCLUSION

Lubricated linear reciprocating wear testing was conducted on a piston to simulate events occurring in a
real-life operational engine. The piston skirt-lubricant-cylinder liner interfaces is crucial to the operations of an engine. The lubricant thickness at the interface is responsible for energy loss due to friction or wear between the piston skirt and cylinder liner. To optimize the engine, the film thickness must be as thin as possible without allowing the piston skirt and cylinder liner to touch. The challenge, however, is how changes in temperature, speed, and force will affect the P-L-C interfaces.

With its wide range of loading (up to 2000 N) and speed (up to 15000 rpm), the NANOVEA T2000 tribometer is able to simulate different conditions possible in an engine. Possible future studies on this topic include how the P-L-C interfaces will behave under different constant load, oscillated load, lubricant temperature, speed, and lubricant application method. These parameters can be easily adjusted with the NANOVEA T2000 tribometer to give a complete understanding on the mechanisms of the piston skirt-lubricant-cylinder liner interfaces.

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Organic Surface Topography using Portable 3D Profilometer

 

ORGANIC SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY

USING PORTABLE 3D PROFILOMETER

Prepared by

CRAIG LEISING

INTRODUCTION

Nature has become a vital pool of inspiration for the development of improved surface structure. Understanding the surface structures found in nature has led to adhesion studies based on gecko’s feet, resistance studies based on a sea cucumbers textural change and repellency studies based from leaves, among many others. These surfaces have a number of potential applications from biomedical to clothing and automotive. For any of these surface breakthroughs to be successful, fabrication techniques must be developed so surface characteristics can be mimicked and reproduced. It is this process that will require identification and control.

IMPORTANCE OF PORTABLE 3D NON-CONTACT OPTICAL PROFILER FOR ORGANIC SURFACES

Utilizing Chromatic Light technology, the NANOVEA Jr25 Portable Optical Profiler has superior capability to measure nearly any material. That includes the unique and steep angles, reflective and absorbing surfaces found within natures broad range of surface characteristics. 3D non-contact measurements provide a full 3D image to give a more complete understanding of surface features. Without 3D capabilities, identification of nature’s surfaces would be solely relying on 2D information or microscope imaging, which does not provide sufficient information to properly mimic the surface studied. Understanding the full range of the surface characteristics including texture, form, dimension, among many others, will be critical to successful fabrication.

The ability to easily obtain lab-quality results in the field opens the door for new research opportunities.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, the NANOVEA Jr25 is used to measure the surface of a leaf. There is an endless list of surface parameters that can be automatically calculated after the 3D surface scan.

Here we will review the 3D surface and select
areas of interest to further analyze, including
quantifying and investigating the surface roughness, channels and topography

NANOVEA

JR25

TEST CONDITIONS

FURROW DEPTH

Mean density of furrows: 16.471 cm/cm2
Mean depth of furrows: 97.428 μm
Maximum depth: 359.769 μm

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have shown how the NANOVEA Jr25 portable 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler can precisely characterize both the topography and the nanometer scale details of a leaf surface in the field. From these 3D surface measurements, areas of interest can quickly be identified and then analyzed with a list of endless studies (Dimension, Roughness Finish Texture, Shape Form Topography, Flatness Warpage Planarity, Volume Area, Step-Height and others). A 2D cross section can be easily chosen to analyze further details. With this information organic surfaces can be broadly investigated with a complete set of surface measurement resources. Special areas of interest could have been further analyzed with integrated AFM module on table top models.

NANOVEA also offers portable high-speed profilometers for field research and a wide range of lab-based systems, as well as provides laboratory services.

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Sandpaper Roughness Profilometer

Sandpaper: Roughness & Particle Diameter Analysis

Sandpaper: Roughness & Particle Diameter Analysis

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SANDPAPER

Roughness & Particle Diameter Analysis

Prepared by

FRANK LIU

INTRODUCTION

Sandpaper is a common commercially available product used as an abrasive. The most common use for sandpaper is to remove coatings or to polish a surface with its abrasive properties. These abrasive properties are classified into grits, each related to how smooth or
rough of a surface finish it will give. To achieve desired abrasive properties, manufactures of sandpaper must ensure that the abrasive particles are of a specific size and have little deviation. To quantify the quality of sandpaper, NANOVEA’s 3D Non-Contact Profilometer can be used to obtain the arithmetic mean (Sa) height parameter and average particle diameter of a sample area.

IMPORTANCE OF 3D NON-CONTACT OPTICAL PROFILER FOR SANDPAPER

When using sandpaper, interaction between abrasive particles and the surface being sanded must be uniform to obtain consistent surface finishes. To quantify this, the surface of the sandpaper can be observed with NANOVEA’s 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler to see deviations in the particle sizes, heights, and spacing.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this study, five different sandpaper grits (120, 180, 320, 800, and 2000) are scanned with the NANOVEA ST400 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler. The Sa is extracted from the scan and the particle size is calculated by conducting a Motifs analysis to find their equivalent diameter

NANOVEA

ST400

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The sandpaper decreases in surface roughness (Sa) and particle size as the grit increases, as expected. The Sa ranged from 42.37 μm to 3.639 μm. The particle size ranges from 127 ± 48.7 to 21.27 ± 8.35. Larger particles and high height variations create stronger abrasive action on surfaces as opposed to smaller particles with low height variation.
Please note all definitions of the given height parameters are listed on page.A.1.

TABLE 1: Comparison between sandpaper grits and height parameters.

TABLE 2: Comparison between sandpaper grits and particle diameter.

2D & 3D VIEW OF SANDPAPER 

Below are the false-color and 3D view for the sandpaper samples.
A gaussian filter of 0.8 mm was used to remove the form or waviness.

MOTIF ANALYSIS

To accurately find the particles at the surface, the height scale threshold was redefined to only show the upper layer of the sandpaper. A motifs analysis was then conducted to detect the peaks.

CONCLUSION

NANOVEA’s 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler was used to inspect the surface properties of various sandpaper grits due to its ability to scan surfaces with micro and nano features with precision.

Surface height parameters and the equivalent particle diameters were obtained from each of the sandpaper samples using advanced software to analyze the 3D scans. It was observed that as the grit size increased, the surface roughness (Sa) and particle size decreased as expected.

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Styrofoam Surface Boundary Measurement Profilometry

Surface Boundary Measurement

Surface Boundary Measurement Using 3D Profilometry

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SURFACE BOUNDARY MEASUREMENT

USING 3D PROFILOMETRY

Prepared by

Craig Leising

INTRODUCTION

In studies where the interface of surface features, patterns, shapes etc., are being evaluated for orientation, it will be useful to quickly identify areas of interest over the entire profile of measurement. By segmenting a surface into significant areas the user can quickly evaluate boundaries, peaks, pits, areas, volumes and many others to understand their functional role in the entire surface profile under study. For example, like that of a grain boundary imaging of metals, the importance of analysis is the interface of many structures and their overall orientation. By understanding each area of interest defects and or abnormalities within the overall area can be identified. Although grain boundary imaging is typically studied at a range surpassing Profilometer capability, and is only 2D image analysis, it is a helpful reference to illustrate the concept of what will be shown here on a larger scale along with 3D surface measurement advantages.

IMPORTANCE OF 3D NON CONTACT PROFILOMETER FOR SURFACE SEPARATION STUDY

Unlike other techniques such as touch probes or interferometry, the 3D Non Contact Profilometer, using axial chromatism, can measure nearly any surface, sample sizes can vary widely due to open staging and there is no sample preparation needed. Nano through macro range is obtained during surface profile measurement with zero influence from sample reflectivity or absorption, has advanced ability to measure high surface angles and there is no software manipulation of results. Easily measure any material: transparent, opaque, specular, diffusive, polished, rough etc. The technique of the Non Contact Profilometer provides an ideal, broad and user friendly capability to maximize surface studies when surface boundary analysis will be needed; along with the benefits of combined 2D & 3D capability.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application the Nanovea ST400 Profilometer is used to measure the surface area of Styrofoam. Boundaries were established by combining a reflected intensity file along with the topography, which are simultaneously acquired using the NANOVEA ST400. This data was then used to calculate different shape and size information of each Styrofoam “grain”.

NANOVEA

ST400

RESULTS & DISCUSSION: 2D Surface Boundary Measurement

Topography image(below left) masked by reflected intensity image(below right) to clearly define grain boundaries. All grains below 565µm diameter have been ignored by applying filter.

Total number of grains: 167
Total projected area occupied by the grains: 166.917 mm² (64.5962 %)
Total projected area occupied by boundaries: (35.4038 %)
Density of grains: 0.646285 grains / mm2

Area = 0.999500 mm² +/- 0.491846 mm²
Perimeter = 9114.15 µm +/- 4570.38 µm
Equivalent diameter = 1098.61 µm +/- 256.235 µm
Mean diameter = 945.373 µm +/- 248.344 µm
Min diameter = 675.898 µm +/- 246.850 µm
Max diameter = 1312.43 µm +/- 295.258 µm

RESULTS & DISCUSSION: 3D Surface Boundary Measurement

By using the 3D topography data obtained, the volume, height, peak, aspect ratio and general shape information can be analyzed on each grain. Total 3D area occupied: 2.525mm3

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have shown how the NANOVEA 3D Non Contact Profilometer can precisely characterize the surface of Styrofoam. Statistical information can be gained over the entire surface of interest or on individual grains, whether they are peaks or pits. In this example all grains larger than a user defined size were used to show the area, perimeter, diameter and height. The features shown here can be critical to research and quality control of natural and pre fabricated surfaces ranging from bio medical to micromachining applications along with many others. 

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Contour Measurement using Profilometer by NANOVEA

Rubber Tread Contour Measurement

Rubber Tread Contour Measurement

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RUBBER TREAD CONTOUR MEASUREMENT

USING 3D OPTICAL PROFILER

Rubber Tread Contour Measurement - NANOVEA Profiler

Prepared by

ANDREA HERRMANN

INTRODUCTION

Like all materials, rubber’s coefficient of friction is related in part to its surface roughness. In vehicle tire applications, traction with the road is very important. Surface roughness and the tire’s treads both play a role in this. In this study, the rubber surface and tread’s roughness and dimensions are analyzed.

* THE SAMPLE

IMPORTANCE

OF 3D NON-CONTACT PROFILOMETRY

FOR RUBBER STUDIES

Unlike other techniques such as touch probes or interferometry, NANOVEA’s 3D Non-Contact Optical Profilers use axial chromatism to measure nearly any surface. 

The Profiler system’s open staging allows for a wide variety of sample sizes and requires zero sample preparation. Nano through macro range features can be detected during a single scan with zero influence from sample reflectivity or absorption. Plus, these profilers have the advanced ability to measure high surface angles without requiring software manipulation of results.

Easily measure any material: transparent, opaque, specular, diffusive, polished, rough etc. The measurement technique of the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Profilers provides an ideal, broad and user friendly capability to maximize surface studies along with the benefits of combined 2D & 3D capability.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we showcase the NANOVEA ST400, a 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler measuring the surface and treads of a rubber tire.

A sample surface area large enough to represent the entire tire surface was selected at random for this study. 

To quantify the rubber’s characteristics, we used the NANOVEA Ultra 3D analysis software to measure the contour dimensions, depth, roughness and developed area of the surface.

NANOVEA

ST400

ANALYSIS: TIRE TREAD

The 3D View and False Color View of the treads show the value of mapping 3D surface designs. It provides users a straightforward tool to directly observe the size and shape of the treads from different angles. The Advanced Contour Analysis and Step Height Analysis are both extremely powerful tools for measuring precise dimensions of sample shapes and design

ADVANCED CONTOUR ANALYSIS

STEP HEIGHT ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS: RUBBER SURFACE

The rubber surface can be quantified in numerous ways using built-in software tools as shown in the following figures as examples. It can be observed that the surface roughness is 2.688 μm, and the developed area vs. projected area is 9.410 mm² vs. 8.997 mm². This information allows us to examine the relationship between surface finish and the traction of different rubber formulations or even rubber with varying degrees of surface wear.

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have shown how the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler can precisely characterize the surface roughness and tread dimensions of rubber.

The data shows a surface roughness of 2.69 ­µm and a developed area of 9.41 mm² with a projected area of 9 mm². Various dimensions and radii of the rubber treads were measured as well.

The information presented in this study can be used to compare the performance of rubber tires with di­fferent tread designs, formulations, or varying degrees of wear. The data shown here represents only a portion of the calculations available in the Ultra 3D analysis software.

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Fish Scale Surface Analysis Using 3D Optical Profiler

Fish Scale Surface Analysis Using 3D Optical Profiler

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FISH SCALE SURFACE ANALYSIS

using 3D OPTICAL PROFILER

Fish Scales profilometer

Prepared by

Andrea Novitsky

INTRODUCTION

The morphology, patterns, and other features of a fish scale are studied using the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler. The delicate nature of this biological sample along with its very small and high angled grooves also highlights the importance of the profiler’s non-contact technique. The grooves on the scale are called circuli, and can be studied to estimate the age of the fish, and even distinguish periods of different rates of growth, similar to the rings of a tree. This is very important information for the management of wild fish populations in order to prevent overfishing.

Importance of 3D Non-Contact Profilometry FOR BIOLOGICAL STUDIES

Unlike other techniques such as touch probes or interferometry, the 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler, using axial chromatism, can measure nearly any surface. Sample sizes can vary widely due to open staging and there is no sample preparation needed. Nano through macro range features are obtained during a surface profile measurement with zero influence from sample reflectivity or absorption. The instrument provides an advanced ability to measure high surface angles with no software manipulation of the results. Any material can be easily measured, whether it’s transparent, opaque, specular, diffusive, polished or rough. The technique provides an ideal, broad and user friendly capability to maximize surface studies along with the benefits of combined 2D & 3D capabilities.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we showcase NANOVEA ST400, a 3D Non-Contact Profiler with a high-speed sensor, providing comprehensive analysis of the surface of a scale.

The instrument has been used to scan the entire sample, along with a higher resolution scan of the center area. The outer and inner side surface roughness of the scale was measured for comparison as well.

NANOVEA

ST400

3D & 2D Surface Characterization of Outer Scale

The 3D View and False Color View of the outer scale show a complex structure similar to a finger print or the rings of a tree. This provides users a straightforward tool to directly observe the surface characterization of the scale from different angles. Various other measurements of the outer scale are shown along with the comparison of the outer and inner side of the scale.

Fish Scale Scan 3D View Profilometer
Fish Scale Scan Volume 3D Profilometer
Fish Scale Scan Step Height 3D Optical Profiler

SURFACE ROUGHNESS COMPARISON

Fish Scale Profilometer 3D Scanning

CONCLUSION

In this application, we have shown how the NANOVEA 3D Non-Contact Optical Profiler can characterize a fish scale in a variety of ways. 

The outer and inner surfaces of the scale can be easily distinguished by surface roughness alone, with roughness values of 15.92μm and 1.56μm respectively. Additionally, precise and accurate information can be learned about a fish scale by analyzing the grooves, or circuli, on the outer surface of the scale. The distance of bands of circuli from the center focus were measured, and the height of the circuli were also found to be approximately 58μm high on average. 

The data shown here represents only a portion of the calculations available in the analysis software.

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Pharmaceutical Tablets: Inspecting Roughness Using 3D Profilometers

Pharmaceutical Tablets: Inspecting Roughness using 3D Profilometers

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Pharmaceutical Tablets

Inspecting Roughness using 3d profilometers

Author:

Jocelyn Esparza

Introduction

Pharmaceutical tablets are the most popular medicinal dosage used today. Each tablet is made up by a combination of active substances (the chemicals that produce pharmacological effect) and inactive substances (disintegrant, binder, lubricant, diluent – usually in the form of powder). The active and inactive substances are then compressed or molded into a solid. Then, depending on the manufacturer specifications, the tablets are either coated or uncoated.

To be effective, tablet coatings need to follow the fine contours of embossed logos or characters on tablets, they need to be stable and sturdy enough to survive handling of the tablet, and they must not cause the tablets to stick to each other during the coating process. Current tablets typically have a polysaccharide and polymer-based coating which include substances like pigments and plasticizers. The two most common types of table coatings are film coatings and sugar coating. Compared to sugar coatings, film coatings are less bulky, more durable, and are less time-consuming to prepare and apply. However, film coatings have more difficulty hiding tablet appearance.

Tablet coatings are essential for moisture protection, masking the taste of the ingredients, and making the tablets easier to swallow. More importantly, the tablet coating controls the location and the rate in which the drug is released.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this application, we use the NANOVEA Optical Profiler and advanced Mountains software to measure and quantify the topography of various name brand pressed pills (1 coated and 2 uncoated) to compare their surface roughness.

It is assumed that Advil (coated) will have the lowest surface roughness due to the protective coating it has.

NANOVEA

HS2000

Test Conditions

Three batches of name brand pharmaceutical pressed tablets were scanned with the Nanovea HS2000
using High-Speed Line Sensor to measure various surface roughness parameters according to ISO 25178.

Scan Area

2 x 2 mm

Lateral Scan Resolution

5 x 5 μm

Scan Time

4 sec

Samples

Results & Discussion

After scanning the tablets, a surface roughness study was conducted with the advanced Mountains analysis software to calculate the surface average, root-mean-square, and maximum height of each tablet.

The calculated values support the assumption that Advil has a lower surface roughness due to the protective coating encasing its ingredients. Tylenol shows to have the highest surface roughness out of all three measured tablets.

A 2D and 3D height map of each tablet’s surface topography was produced which show the height distributions measured. One out of the five tablets were selected to represent the height maps for each brand. These height maps make a great tool for visual detection of outlying surface features such as pits or peaks.

Conclusion

In this study, we analyzed and compared the surface roughness of three name brand pressed pharmaceutical pills: Advil, Tylenol, and Excedrin. Advil proved to have the lowest average surface roughness. This can be attributed to the presence of the orange coating incasing the drug. In contrast, both Excedrin and Tylenol lack coatings, however, their surface roughness still differ from each other. Tylenol proved to have the highest average surface roughness out of all the tablets studied.

Using the NANOVEA HS2000 with High-Speed Line Sensor, we were able to measure 5 tablets in less than 1 minute. This can prove to be useful for quality control testing of hundreds of pills in a production today.

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Dental-Screws-dimensional-measurement-using-3d-profilometer

Dental Tools: Dimensional and Surface Roughness Analysis

 
 
 

INTRODUCTION


Having precise dimensions and optimal surface roughness are vital to the functionality of dental screws. Many dental screw dimensions require high precision such as radii, angles, distances, and step heights. Understanding local surface roughness is also highly important for any medical tool or part being inserted inside the human body to minimize sliding friction.


NON-CONTACT PROFILOMETRY FOR DIMENSIONAL STUDY


Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profilers use a chromatic light-based technology to measure any material surface: transparent, opaque, specular, diffusive, polished or rough. Unlike a touch probe technique, the non-contact technique can measure inside tight areas and will not add any intrinsic errors due to deformation caused by the tip pressing on a softer plastic material.  Chromatic light-based technology also offers superior lateral and height accuracies compared to focus variation technology. Nanovea Profilers can scan large surfaces directly without stitching and profile the length of a part in a few seconds. Nano through macro range surface features and high surface angles can be measured due to the profiler’s ability to measure surfaces without any complex algorithms manipulating the results.


MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE


In this application, the Nanovea ST400 Optical Pro­filer was used to measure a dental screw along flat and thread features in a single measurement. The surface roughness was calculated from the flat area, and various dimensions of the threaded features were determined.



dental screw quality control

 
Sample of dental screw analyzed by NANOVEA Optical Profiler.
 
Dental screw sample analyzed.


RESULTS


3D Surface

The 3D View and False Color View of the dental screw shows a flat area with threading starting on either side. It provides users a straightforward tool to directly observe the morphology of the screw from different angles. The flat area was extracted from the full scan to measure its surface roughness.







2D Surface Analysis

Line profiles can also be extracted from the surface to show a cross-sectional view of the screw. The Contour Analysis and step height studies were used to measure precise dimensions at a certain location on the screw.











CONCLUSION


In this application, we have showcase the Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profiler’s ability to precisely calculate local surface roughness and measure large dimensional features in a single scan.

The data shows a local surface roughness of 0.9637 μm. The radius of the screw between threads was found to be 1.729 mm, and the threads had an average height of 0.413 mm. The average angle between the threads was determined to be 61.3°.

The data shown here represents only a portion of the calculations available in the analysis software.

 

Prepared by
Duanjie Li, PhD., Jonathan Thomas, and Pierre Leroux

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