COVID-19: In these troubled times, NANOVEA devotes necessary resources to maintain all of the essential services you count on. Stay safe!
CONTACT SUPPORT CONTACT US

Category: Linear Tribology

 

Fretting Wear Testing Tribology

Fretting Wear Evaluation

Fretting Wear Evaluation

 

Learn more

 

Fretting Wear

EVALUATION

Author:

Duanjie Li, PhD

Revised by

Jocelyn Esparza

Fretting Wear Evaluation in Aviation
Fretting Wear Evaluation in Mining and Metallurgy

INTRODUCTION

Fretting is “a special wear process that occurs at the contact area between two materials under load and subject to minute relative motion by vibration or some other force.” When machines are in operation, vibrations inevitably occur in joints that are bolted or pinned, between components that are not intended to move, and in oscillating couplings and bearings. The amplitude of such relative sliding motion is often in the order of micrometers to millimeters. Such repetitive low-amplitude motion causes serious localized mechanical wear and material transfer at the surface, which may lead to reduced production efficiency, machine performance or even damage to the machine.

Importance of Quantitative
Fretting Wear Evaluation

Fretting wear often involves several complex wear mechanisms taking place at the contact surface, including two-body abrasion, adhesion and/or fretting fatigue wear. In order to understand the fretting wear mechanism and select the best material for fretting wear protection, reliable and quantitative fretting wear evaluation is needed. The fretting wear behavior is significantly influenced by the work environment, such as displacement amplitude, normal loading, corrosion, temperature, humidity and lubrication. A versatile tribometer that can simulate the different realistic work conditions will be ideal for fretting wear evaluation.

Steven R. Lampman, ASM Handbook: Volume 19: Fatigue and Fracture
http://www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/693/fretting-wear

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this study, we evaluated the fretting wear behaviors of a stainless steel SS304 sample at different oscillation speeds and temperatures to showcase the capacity of NANOVEA T2000 Tribometer in simulating the fretting wear process of metal in a well-controlled and monitored manner.

NANOVEA

T2000

TEST CONDITIONS

The fretting wear resistance of a stainless steel SS304 sample was evaluated by NANOVEA Tribometer using Linear Reciprocating Wear Module. A WC (6 mm diameter) ball was used as the counter material. The wear track was examined using a NANOVEA 3D non-contact profiler. 

The fretting test was performed at room temperature (RT) and 200 °C to study the effect of high temperature on the fretting wear resistance of the SS304 sample. A heating plate on the sample stage heated up the sample during the fretting test at 200 °C. The wear rate, K, was evaluated using the formula K=V/(F×s), where V is the worn volume, F is the normal load, and s is the sliding distance.

Please note that a WC ball as a counter material was used as an example in this study. Any solid material with different shapes and surface finish can be applied using a custom fixture to simulate the actual application situation.

TEST PARAMETERS

of the wear measurements

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The 3D wear track profile allows direct and accurate determination of the wear track volume loss calculated by the NANOVEA Mountains analysis software. 

The reciprocating wear test at a low speed of 100 rpm and room temperature exhibits a small wear track of 0.014 mm³. In comparison, the fretting wear test carried out at a high speed of 1000 rpm creates a substantially larger wear track with a volume of 0.12 mm³. Such an accelerated wear process may be attributed to the high heat and intense vibration generated during the fretting wear test, which promotes oxidation of the metallic debris and results in severe three-body abrasion. The fretting wear test at an elevated temperature of 200 °C forms a larger wear track of 0.27 mm³.

The fretting wear test at 1000 rpm has a wear rate of 1.5×10-4 mm³/Nm, which is nearly nine times compared to that in a reciprocating wear test at 100 rpm. The fretting wear test at an elevated temperature further accelerates the wear rate to 3.4×10-4 mm³/Nm. Such a significant difference in wear resistance measured at different speeds and temperatures shows the importance of proper simulations of fretting wear for realistic applications.

Wear behavior can change drastically when small changes in testing conditions are introduced into the tribosystem. The versatility of the NANOVEA Tribometer allows measuring wear under various conditions, including high temperature, lubrication, corrosion and others. The accurate speed and position control by the advanced motor enables users to perform the wear test at speeds ranging from 0.001 to 5000 rpm, making it an ideal tool for research/testing labs to investigate the fretting wear in different tribological conditions.

Fretting wear tracks at various conditions

under the optical microscope

Fretting wear tracks at various conditions under the optical microscope

3D WEAR TRACKs PROFILES

provide more insight in fundamental understanding
of the fretting wear mechanism

3d wear track profiles - fretting

measured using different test parameters

RESULT SUMMARY OF WEAR TRACKS

CONCLUSION

In this study, we showcased the capacity of the NANOVEA Tribometer in evaluating the fretting wear behavior of a stainless steel SS304 sample in a well-controlled and quantitative manner. 

The test speed and temperature play critical roles in the fretting wear resistance of the materials. The high heat and intense vibration during the fretting resulted in substantially accelerated wear of the SS304 sample by close to nine times. The elevated temperature of 200 °C further increased the wear rate to 3.4×10-4 mm3/Nm. 

The versatility of the NANOVEA Tribometer makes it an ideal tool for measuring fretting wear under various conditions, including high temperature, lubrication, corrosion and others.

NANOVEA Tribometers offer precise and repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional high temperature wear, lubrication and tribo-corrosion modules available in one pre-integrated system. Our unmatched range is an ideal solution for determining the full scope of tribological properties of thin or thick, soft or hard coatings, films and substrates.

LEARN MORE ABOUT OUR INSTRUMENTS

Optical profilers

Mechanical Testers

Tribometers

Lab Services

Ball Bearings: Wear Resistance Using Macro Tribology

 
 
 

INTRODUCTION


A ball bearing uses balls to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. The rolling balls between the bearing races produce much lower coefficient of friction (COF) compared to two flat surfaces sliding against each other. Ball bearings are often exposed to high contact stress levels, wear and extreme environmental conditions such as high temperatures. Therefore, wear resistance of the balls under high loads and extreme environmental conditions is critical for extending the lifetime of the ball bearing to cut down cost and time on repairs and replacements.

Ball bearings can be found in nearly all applications that involve moving parts. They are commonly used in transportation industries such as aerospace and automobile as well as the toy industry that manufactures items such as fidget spinner and skateboards.


BALL BEARING WEAR EVALUATION AT HIGH LOADS


Ball bearings can be made from an extensive list of materials. Commonly used materials range between metals like stainless steel and chrome steel or ceramics such as tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon nitride (Si3n4). To ensure that the manufactured ball bearings possess the required wear resistance ideal for the given application’s conditions, reliable tribological evaluations under high loads are necessary. Tribological testing aids in quantifying and contrasting the wear behaviors of diff­erent ball bearings in a controlled and monitored manner to select the best candidate for the targeted application.


MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE


In this study, we showcase a Nanovea Tribometer as the ideal tool for comparing the wear resistance of different ball bearings under high loads.


Figure 1:  Setup of the bearing test.


TESTING PROCEDURE

 
The coefficient of friction, COF, and the wear resistance of the ball bearings made of different materials were evaluated by a Nanovea Tribometer. P100 grit sandpaper was used as the counter material. The wear scars of the ball bearings were examined using a Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profiler after the wear tests concluded. The test parameters are summarized in Table 1. The wear rate, K, was evaluated using the formula K=V/(F×s), where V is the worn volume, F is the normal load and s is the sliding distance. Ball wear scars were evaluated by a Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profiler to ensure precise wear volume measurement.

The automated motorized radial positioning feature allows the tribometer to decrease the radius of the wear track for the duration of a test. This test mode is called a spiral test and it ensures that the ball bearing always slides on a new surface of the sandpaper (Figure 2). It significantly improves the repeatability of the wear resistance test on the ball. The advanced 20bit encoder for internal speed control and 16bit encoder for external position control provide precise real-time speed and position information, allowing for a continuous adjustment of rotational speed to achieve constant linear sliding speed at the contact.

Please note that P100 Grit sandpaper was used to simplify the wear behavior between various ball materials in this study and can be substituted with any other material surface. Any solid material can be substituted to simulate the performance of a wide range of material couplings under actual application conditions, such as in liquid or lubricant.


Figure 2:  Illustration of the spiral passes for the ball bearing on the sandpaper.


Table 1:  Test parameters of the wear measurements.
 

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

 
Wear rate is a vital factor for determining the service lifetime of the ball bearing, while a low COF is desirable to improve the bearing performance and efficiency. Figure 3 compares the evolution of COF for di­fferent ball bearings against the sandpaper during the tests. The Cr Steel ball shows an increased COF of ~0.4 during the wear test, compared to ~0.32 and ~0.28 for SS440 and Al2O3 ball bearings. On the other hand, the WC ball exhibits a constant COF of ~0.2 throughout the wear test. Observable COF variation can be seen throughout each test which is attributed to vibrations caused by the sliding movement of the ball bearings against the rough sandpaper surface.


 
Figure 3:  Evolution of COF during the wear tests.


Figure 4 and Figure 5 compare the wear scars of the ball bearings after they were measured by an optical microscope and Nanovea Non-Contact optical profiler, respectively, and Table 2 summarizes the results of the wear track analysis. The Nanovea 3D profiler precisely determines the wear volume of the ball bearings, making it possible to calculate and compare the wear rates of different ball bearings. It can be observed that the Cr Steel and SS440 balls exhibit much larger flattened wear scars compared to the ceramic balls, i.e. Al2O3 and WC after the wear tests. The Cr Steel and SS440 balls have comparable wear rates of 3.7×10-3 and 3.2×10-3 m3/N m, respectively. In comparison, the Al2O3 ball shows an enhanced wear resistance with a wear rate of 7.2×10-4 m3/N m. The WC ball barely exhibits minor scratches on the shallow wear track area, resulting in a significantly reduced wear rate of 3.3×10-6 mm3/N m.


Figure 4:  Wear scars of the ball bearings after the tests.


Figure 5:  3D morphology of the wear scars on the ball bearings.
 

Table 2: Wear scar analysis of the ball bearings.


Figure 6 shows microscope images of the wear tracks produced on the sand paper by the four ball bearings. It is evident that the WC ball produced the most severe wear track (removing almost all sand particle in its path) and possesses the best wear resistance. In comparison, the Cr Steel and SS440 balls left a large amount of metal debris on the wear track of the sand paper.

These observations further demonstrate the importance of the benefit of a spiral test. It ensures that the ball bearing always slides on a new surface of the sandpaper, which significantly improves the repeatability of a wear resistance test.


Figure 6:  Wear tracks on the sand paper against different ball bearings.
 



CONCLUSION

The wear resistance of the ball bearings under a high pressure plays a vital role in their service performance. The ceramic ball bearings possess significantly enhanced wear resistance under high stress conditions and reduce the time and cost due to bearing repairing or replacement. In this study, the WC ball bearing exhibits a substantially higher wear resistance compared to the steel bearings, making it an ideal candidate for bearing applications where severe wear takes place.

A Nanovea Tribometer is designed with high torque capabilities for loads up to 2000 N and precise and controlled motor for rotational speeds from 0.01 to 15,000 rpm. It offers repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional high temperature wear and lubrication modules available in one pre-integrated system. This unmatched range allows users to simulate different severe work environments of the ball bearings including high stress, wear and high temperature, etc. It also acts as an ideal tool to quantitatively assess the tribological behaviors of superior wear resistant materials under high loads.

A Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profiler provides precise wear volume measurements and acts as a tool to analyze the detailed morphology of the wear tracks, providing additional insights in the fundamental understanding of wear mechanisms.


Prepared by
Duanjie Li, PhD, Jonathan Thomas, and Pierre Leroux

Wear and Scratch Evaluation of Surface Treated Copper Wire

Wear and Scratch Evaluation of Surface Treated Copper Wire

Learn more
 

Importance of Wear and Scratch Evaluation of Copper Wire

Copper has a long history of use in electric wiring since the invention of the electromagnet and telegraph. Copper wires are applied in a wide range of electronic equipment such as panels, meters, computers, business machines, and appliances thanks to its corrosion resistance, solderability, and performance at elevated temperatures up to 150°C. Approximately half of all mined copper is used for manufacturing electrical wire and cable conductors.

Copper wire surface quality is critical to application service performance and lifetime. Micro defects in wires may lead to excessive wear, crack initiation and propagation, decreased conductivity, and inadequate solderability. Proper surface treatment of copper wires removes surface defects generated during wire drawing improving corrosion, scratch, and wear resistance. Many aerospace applications with copper wires require controlled behavior to prevent unexpected equipment failure. Quantifiable and reliable measurements are needed to properly evaluate the wear and scratch resistance of the copper wire surface.


Measurement Objective

In this application we simulate a controlled wear process of different copper wire surface treatments. Scratch testing measures the load required to cause failure on the treated surface layer. This study showcases the Nanovea Tribometer and Mechanical Tester as ideal tools for evaluation and quality control of electric wires.


Test Procedure and Procedures

Coefficient of friction (COF) and wear resistance of two different surface treatments on copper wires (Wire A and Wire B) were evaluated by the Nanovea tribometer using a linear reciprocating wear module. An Al₂O₃ ball (6 mm diameter) is the counter material used in this application. The wear track was examined using Nanovea’s 3D non-contact profilometer. Test parameters are summarized in Table 1.

A smooth Al₂O₃ ball as a counter material was used as an example in this study. Any solid material with different shape and surface finish can be applied using a custom fixture to simulate the actual application situation.



Nanovea’s mechanical tester equipped with a Rockwell C diamond stylus (100 μm radius) performed progressive load scratch tests on the coated wires using micro scratch mode. Scratch test parameters and tip geometry are shown in Table 2.




Results and Discussion

Wear of copper wire: Figure 2 shows COF evolution of the copper wires during wear tests. Wire A shows a stable COF of ~0.4 throughout the wear test while wire B exhibits a COF of ~0.35 in the first 100 revolutions and progressively increases to ~0.4.



Figure 3 compares wear tracks of the copper wires after tests. Nanovea’s 3D non-contact profilometer offered superior analysis of the detailed morphology of wear tracks. It allows direct and accurate determination of the wear track volume by providing a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanism. Wire B’s surface has signi¬ficant wear track damage after a 600-revolution wear test. The profilometer 3D view shows the surface treated layer of Wire B removed completely which substantially accelerated the wear process. This left a flattened wear track on Wire B where copper substrate is exposed. This may result in significantly shortened lifespan of electrical equipment where Wire B is used. In comparison, Wire A exhibits relatively mild wear shown by a shallow wear track on the surface. The surface treated layer on Wire A did not remove like the layer on Wire B under the same conditions.







Scratch resistance of the copper wire surface: Figure 4 shows the scratch tracks on the wires after testing. The protective layer of Wire A exhibits very good scratch resistance. It delaminates at a load of ~12.6 N. In comparison, the protective layer of Wire B failed at a load of ~1.0 N. Such a significant difference in scratch resistance for these wires contributes to their wear performance, where Wire A possesses substantially enhanced wear resistance. The evolution of normal force, COF, and depth during the scratch tests shown in Fig. 5 provides more insight on coating failure during tests.






Conclusion



In this controlled study we showcased the Nanovea’s tribometer conducting quantitative evaluation of wear resistance for surface treated copper wires and Nanovea’s mechanical tester providing reliable assessment of copper wire scratch resistance. Wire surface treatment plays a critical role in the tribo-mechanical properties during their lifetime. Proper surface treatment on Wire A significantly enhanced wear and scratch resistance, critical in the performance and lifespan of electrical wires in rough environments. Nanovea’s tribometer offers precise and repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional high temperature wear, lubrication, and tribo-corrosion modules available in one pre-integrated system. Nanovea’s unmatched range is an ideal solution for determining the full range of tribological properties of thin or thick, soft or hard coatings, films, and substrates.

Humidity Effect on DLC Coating Tribology

Importance of Wear Evaluation on DLC in Humidity

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess enhanced tribological properties, namely excellent wear resistance and a very low coefficient of friction (COF). DLC coatings impart diamond characteristics when deposited on different materials. Favorable tribo-mechanical properties make DLC coatings preferable in various industrial applications, such as aerospace parts, razor blades, metal cutting tools, bearings, motorcycle engines, and medical implants. DLC coatings exhibit very low COF (below 0.1) against steel balls under high vacuum and dry conditions12. However, DLC coatings are sensitive to environmental condition changes, particularly relative humidity (RH)3. Environments with high humidity and oxygen concentration may lead to significant increase in COF4. Reliable wear evaluation in controlled humidity simulates realistic environmental conditions of DLC coatings for tribological applications. Users select the best DLC coatings for target applications with proper comparison of DLC wear behaviors exposed to different humidity.


Measurement Objective

This study showcases the Nanovea Tribometer equipped with a humidity controller is the ideal tool for investigating wear behavior of DLC coatings at various relative humidity.

 

 


Test Procedure

Friction and wear resistance of DLC coatings were evaluated by the Nanovea Tribometer. Test parameters are summarized in Table 1. A humidity controller attached to the tribo-chamber precisely controlled the relative humidity (RH) with an accuracy of ±1%. Wear tracks on DLC coatings and wear scars on SiN balls were examined using an optical microscope after tests. Note: Any solid ball material can be applied to simulate the performance of different material coupling under environmental conditions such as in lubricant or high temperature.




Results and Discussion

DLC coatings are great for tribological applications due to their low friction and superior wear resistance. The DLC coating friction exhibits humidity dependent behavior shown in Figure 2. The DLC coating shows a very low COF of ~0.05 throughout the wear test in relatively dry conditions (10% RH). The DLC coating exhibits a constant COF of ~0.1 during the test as RH increases to 30%. The initial run-in stage of COF is observed in the first 2000 revolutions when RH rises above 50%. The DLC coating shows a maximum COF of ~0.20, ~0.26 and ~0.33 in RH of 50, 70 and 90%, respectively. Following the run-in period, the DLC coating COF stays constant at ~0.11, 0.13 and 0.20 in RH of 50, 70 and 90%, respectively.

 



Figure 3 compares SiN ball wear scars and Figure 4 compares DLC coating wear tracks after the wear tests. The diameter of the wear scar was smaller when the DLC coating was exposed to an environment with low humidity. Transfer DLC layer accumulates on the SiN ball surface during the repetitive sliding process at the contact surface. At this stage, the DLC coating slides against its own transfer layer which acts as an efficient lubricant to facilitate the relative motion and restrain further mass loss caused by shear deformation. A transfer film is observed in the wear scar of the SiN ball in low RH environments (e.g. 10% and 30%), resulting in a decelerated wear process on the ball. This wear process reflects on the DLC coating’s wear track morphology as shown in Figure 4. The DLC coating exhibits a smaller wear track in dry environments, due to the formation of a stable DLC transfer film at the contact interface which significantly reduces friction and wear rate.

 

Conclusion




Humidity plays a vital role in the tribological performance of DLC coatings. The DLC coating possesses significantly enhanced wear resistance and superior low friction in dry conditions due to the formation of a stable graphitic layer transferred onto the sliding counterpart (a SiN ball in this study). The DLC coating slides against its own transfer layer, which acts as an efficient lubricant to facilitate the relative motion and restrain further mass loss caused by shear deformation. A film is not observed on the SiN ball with increasing relative humidity, leading to an increased wear rate on the SiN ball and the DLC coating. The Nanovea Tribometer offers repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional humidity modules available in one pre- integrated system. It allows users to simulate the work environment at different humidity, providing users an ideal tool to quantitatively assess the tribological behaviors of materials under different work conditions.

Learn More about the Nanovea Tribometer and Lab Service
1 C. Donnet, Surf. Coat. Technol. 100–101 (1998) 180.
2 K. Miyoshi, B. Pohlchuck, K.W. Street, J.S. Zabinski, J.H. Sanders, A.A. Voevodin, R.L.C. Wu, Wear 225–229 (1999) 65.
3 R. Gilmore, R. Hauert, Surf. Coat. Technol. 133–134 (2000) 437.
4 R. Memming, H.J. Tolle, P.E. Wierenga, Thin Solid Coatings 143 (1986) 31

Learn more about all the features our Nanovea Tribometer offers.

Comparing Abrasion Wear on Denim

Introduction

The form and function of a fabric is determined by its quality and durability. Daily usage of fabrics cause wear and tear on the material, e.g. piling, fuzzing, and discoloration. Subpar fabric quality used for clothing can often lead to consumer dissatisfaction and brand damage.

Attempting to quantify the mechanical properties of fabrics can pose many challenges. The yarn structure and even the factory in which it was produced can result in poor reproducibility of test results. Making it difficult to compare test results from different laboratories. Measuring the wear performance of fabrics is critical to the manufacturers, distributors, and retailers in the textile production chain. A well controlled and reproducible wear resistance measurement is crucial to ensure reliable quality control of the fabric.

Click to read the full application note!

Rotative or Linear Wear & COF? (A Comprehensive Study Using the Nanovea Tribometer)

Wear is the process of removal and deformation of material on a surface as a result of mechanical action of the opposite surface1. It is influenced by a variety of factors, including unidirectional sliding, rolling, speed, temperature, and many others. The study of wear, tribology, spans many disciplines, from physics and chemistry to mechanical engineering and material science. The complex nature of wear requires isolated studies towards specific wear mechanisms or processes, such as adhesive wear, abrasive wear, surface fatigue, fretting wear and erosive wear2. However, “Industrial Wear” commonly involves multiple wear mechanisms occurring in synergy.

Linear reciprocating and Rotative (Pin on Disk) wear tests are two widely used ASTM compliant setups34for measuring sliding wear behaviors of materials. Since the wear rate value of any wear test method is often used to predict the relative ranking of material combinations, it is extremely important to conrm the repeatability of the wear rate measured using different test setups. This enables users to carefully consider the wear rate value reported in the literature, which is critical in understanding the tribological characteristics of materials.

Read More!

Evaluating Brake Pads with Tribology


Importance of Evaluating Break Pad Performance

Brake pads are composites., a material made up of multiple ingredients, that must be able to satisfy a large number of safety requirements. Ideal brake pads have high coefficient of friction (COF), low wear rate, minimal noise, and remain reliable under varying environments. To ensure the quality of brake pads are able to satisfy their requirements, tribology testing can be used to identify critical specifications.


The importance of the reliability of brake pads is placed very high; the safety of passengers should never be neglected. Therefore, it is key to replicate operating conditions and identify possible points of failure.
With the Nanovea Tribometer, a constant load is applied between a pin, ball, or flat and a constantly moving counter material. The friction between the two material is collected with a stiff load cell, allowing the collection of material properties at different loads and speeds and tested in high temperature, corrosive, or liquid environments.



Measurement Objective

In this study, the coefficient of friction of the brake pads were studied under a continuously increasing temperature environment from room temperature to 700°C. The environmental temperature was raised in-situ until noticeable failure of the brake pad was observed. A thermocouple was attached to the backside of the pin to measure the temperature near the sliding interface.



Test Procedure and Procedures




Results and Discussion

This study focuses mainly on the temperature at which brake pads start to fail. The COF obtained do not represent real-life values; the pin material is not the same as brake rotors. It should also be noted that the temperature data collected is the temperature of the pin and not the sliding interface temperature

 








At the start of the test (room temperature), the COF between the SS440C pin and brake pad gave a consistent value of approximately 0.2. As the temperature increased, the COF steadily increased and peaked at a value of 0.26 near 350°C. Past 390°C, the COF quickly starts decreasing. The COF began to increase back to 0.2 at 450°C but starts decreasing to a value of 0.05 shortly after.


The temperature at which the brake pads consistently failed is identified at temperatures above 500°C. Past this temperature, the COF was no longer able to retain the starting COF of 0.2.



Conclusion




The brake pads have shown consistent failure at a temperature past 500°C. Its COF of 0.2 slowly rises to a value of 0.26 before dropping down to 0.05 at the end of the test (580°C). The difference between 0.05 and 0.2 is a factor of 4. This means that the normal force at 580°C must be four times greater than at room temperature to achieve the same stopping force!


While not included in this study, the Nanovea Tribometer is also able to conduct testing to observe another important property of brake pads: wear rate. By utilizing our 3D non-contact profilometers, the volume of the wear track can be obtained to calculate how quickly samples wear. Wear testing can be conducted with the Nanovea Tribometer under different test conditions and environments to best simulate operating conditions.

Tribology on Piston Operations

Friction loss accounts for approximately 10% of total energy in fuel for a diesel engine [1]. 40-55% of the
friction loss comes from the power cylinder system. The loss of energy from friction can be diminished
with better understanding of the tribological interactions occurring in the power cylinder system.

A significant portion of the friction loss in the power cylinder system stems from the contact between
the piston skirt and the cylinder liner. The interaction between the piston skirt, lubricant, and cylinder
interfaces is quite complex due to the constant changes in force, temperature, and speed in a real life
engine. Optimizing each factor is key to obtaining optimal engine performance. This study will focus on
replicating the mechanisms causing friction forces and wear at the piston skirt-lubricant-cylinder liner
(P-L-C) interfaces.

Click to Learn about Piston Tribology!

Brush Bristle Stiffness Performance Using Tribometer

Brushes are among the most basic and widely used tools in the world. They can be used to remove material (toothbrush, archaeological brush, bench grinder brush), apply material (paintbrush, makeup brush, gilding brush), comb filaments, or add a pattern. As a result of the mechanical and abrasive forces on them, brushes constantly have to be replaced after moderate use. For example toothbrush heads should be replaced every three to four months because of fraying as a result of repeated usage. Making the toothbrush fiber filaments too stiff risks wearing away the actual tooth instead of soft plaque. Making the toothbrush fibers too soft makes the brush lose its form faster. Understanding the changing bend of the brush, as well as the wear and overall change in shape in the filaments under different loading conditions is necessary to design brushes that better fulfill their application.

Brush Bristle Stiffness Performance Using Tribometer

Low Temperature Tribology

Low Temperature Tribology

A reliable measurement of low temperature tribology, static and dynamic coefficient of friction, COF, as well as wear behavior is needed in order to better understand the tribological performance of materials for sub-zero applications. It provides a useful tool to correlate the frictional property with the influence of various factors, such as reactions at the interface, interlocking surface features, cohesion of surface films, and even microscopic solid static junctions between surfaces at low temperatures.

Low Temperature Tribology of Rubber

Please fill out the form below and
we will send the brochure to your email

Мелитэк | Melytec LLC

RUSSIA | BELARUS

34/63 Obrucheva st. bld.26
Moscow, 117342, Russia
+7 (495) 781-07-85

СВЯЖИТЕСЬ С НАМИ / CONTACT US

Nanovea Inc

HEADQUARTERS

6 Morgan Ste 156
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone: (949) 461-9292

CONTACT US

Please fill out our form and we will reach out to you as soon as possible!

Nanovea SRL

EUROPEAN OFFICE

Via Balegno 1
Rivalta di Torino
10040 TO (IT)
Phone: +39 011 3052 794

CONTACT US / CONTATTACI

Nanovea SRL

EUROPEAN OFFICE

Via Balegno 1
Rivalta di Torino
10040 TO (IT)
Phone: +39 011 3052 794

CONTACT US / CONTATTACI

Nanovea S.A. de C.V.

LATIN AMERICA

1952 Hidalgo
Colonia Ladron de Guevara
Guadalajara, Jalisco
Mexico 44600
Phone: +52 1 33 10 31 52 27

CONTACT US / CONTÁCTENOS

MICRO-NANO Technology Co. Ltd

CHINA | TAIWAN | HONG KONG

• BEIJING
Room 081-082,2/F,Dongqu, Yiqing Building
No 38 Guangqulu
Chaoyang District
Beijing China/100022
+86 10 51649103
Mobile: 15321352298

• SHANGHAI
Room 703, No. 578 Tianbao Road,
Shanghai China
Mobile: 15801657153

CONTACT US / 联系我们

Tribotron AG

SWITZERLAND | AUSTRIA

Lerchenfeldstrasse 3
CH-9014 St.Gallen
+41 71 511 24 65

CONTACT US / KONTAKTIERE UNS

Mi-Net Technology Ltd. UNITED KINGDOM | IRELAND 30 Summerleaze Road Maidenhead Berks SL6 8EN United Kingdom +44(0) 1628 783576

CONTACT US

Please fill out our form and we will reach out to you as soon as possible!

160-0023

株式会社日本サーマル・コンサルティング

東京都新宿区西新宿1-5-11新宿三葉ビル5F

 

+81(0) 3 5339-1470

問い合わせ / CONTACT US

Nanovea Inc

HEADQUARTERS

6 Morgan Ste 156
Irvine, CA 92618

Phone: (949) 461-9292

CONTACT SUPPORT

Please fill out the form below. We will reach out to you as soon as possible. If it is urgent, feel free to call (949) 461-9292

Nanovea Inc

HEADQUARTERS

6 Morgan Ste 156
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone: (949) 461-9292

CONTACT US

Please fill out our form and we will reach out to you as soon as possible!

Please fill out the form below and
we will send the brochure to your email

Nanovea S.A. de C.V.

LATIN AMERICA

1952 Hidalgo
Colonia Ladron de Guevara
Guadalajara, Jalisco
Mexico 44600
Phone: +52 1 33 10 31 52 27

CONTACT US / CONTÁCTENOS

Nanovea SRL

EUROPEAN OFFICE

Via Balegno 1
Rivalta di Torino
10040 TO (IT)
Phone: +39 011 3052 794

CONTACT US / CONTATTACI

Nanovea S.A. de C.V.

LATIN AMERICA

1952 Hidalgo
Colonia Ladron de Guevara
Guadalajara, Jalisco
Mexico 44600
Phone: +52 1 33 10 31 52 27

CONTACT US / CONTÁCTENOS

Altmann S.A. Importação e Comércio

BRAZIL

Av. Dr. Chucri Zaidan, 1550 Edifício Capital Corporate 17º andar- conjunto 1701
04711-130 – São Paulo – SP – Brazil
+55(11) 2198-7198
P: +55(11) 5507-3302

CONTATE-NOS / CONTACT US

Nanovea Inc

HEADQUARTERS

6 Morgan Ste 156
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone: (949) 461-9292

Send us a request!

Please fill out our form and we will reach out to you as soon as possible!

Nanovea India Private Limited

INDIA

#1112, 2nd Stage,
17th Cross, Banashankari
Bangalore, Pin: 560 060

CONTACT US

Nanovea India Private Limited

INDIA

#1112, 2nd Stage,
17th Cross, Banashankari
Bangalore, Pin: 560 060

CONTACT US

Nanovea India Private Limited

INDIA

#1112, 2nd Stage,
17th Cross, Banashankari
Bangalore, Pin: 560 060

CONTACT US

Please fill out the form below and
we will send the brochure to your email

Please fill out the form below and
we will send the brochure to your email

Want us to test your samples?

Please fill up our form and we will reach out to you soon!