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Category: Tribometer

 

In-Situ Wear Measurement at High Temperature

In-Situ Wear Measurement at High Temperature

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IN-SITU WEAR MEASUREMENT AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

USING TRIBOMETER

IN-SITU WEAR MEASUREMENT Aerospace Tribometer

Prepared by

Duanjie Li, PhD

INTRODUCTION

The Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is a type of robust electrical transformer used to measure linear displacement. It has been widely used in a variety of industrial applications, including power turbines, hydraulics, automation, aircraft, satellites, nuclear reactors, and many others.

In this study, we feature the add-ons of LVDT and high temperature modules of the NANOVEA Tribometer which allow the change of wear track depth of the tested sample to be measured during the wear process at elevated temperatures. This enables users to correlate different stages of wear process with the evolution of COF, which is critical in improving fundamental understanding of the wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of the materials for high temperature applications.

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this study. we would like to showcase the capacity of NANOVEA T50 Tribometer for in-situ monitoring the evolution of the wear process of materials at elevated temperatures.

The wear process of the alumina silicate ceramic at different temperatures is simulated in a controlled and monitored manner.

NANOVEA

T50

TEST PROCEDURE

The tribological behavior, e. g. coefficient of friction, COF, and wear resistance of alumina silicate ceramic plates was evaluated by the NANOVEA Tribometer. The alumina silicate ceramic plate was heated up by a furnace from room temperature, RT, to elevated temperatures (400°C and 800°C), followed by the wear tests at such temperatures. 

For comparison, the wear tests were carried out when the sample cooled down from 800°C to 400°C and then to room temperature. An AI2O3 ball tip (6mm dia., Grade 100) was applied against the tested samples. The COF, wear depth and temperature were monitored in-situ.

TEST PARAMETERS

of the pin-on-disk measurement

Tribometer LVDT Sample

The wear rate, K, was evaluated using the formula K=V/(Fxs)=A/(Fxn), where V is the worn volume, F is the normal load, s is the sliding distance, A is the cross-sectional area of the wear track, and n is the number of revolution. Surface roughness and wear track profiles were evaluated by the NANOVEA Optical Profiler, and the wear track morphology was examined using an optical microscope.

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The COF and wear track depth recorded in-situ are shown in FIGURE 1 and FIGURE 2, respectively. In FIGURE 1, “-I” indicates the test performed when the temperature was increased from RT to an elevated temperature. “-D” represents the temperature decreased from a higher temperature of 800°C.

As shown in FIGURE 1, the samples tested at different temperatures exhibit a comparable COF of ~0.6 throughout the measurements. Such a high COF leads to an accelerated wear process which creates a substantial amount of debris. The wear track depth was monitored during the wear tests by LVDT as shown in FIGURE 2. The tests performed at room temperature before sample heating up and after sample cooling down show that the alumina silicate ceramic plate exhibits a progressive wear process at RT, the wear track depth gradually increases throughout the wear test to ~170 and ~150 μm, respectively. 

In comparison, the wear tests at elevated temperatures (400°C and 800°C) exhibit a different wear behavior – the wear track depth increases promptly at the beginning of the wear process, and it slows down as the test continues. The wear track depths for tests performed at temperatures 400°C-I, 800°C and 400°C-D are ~140, ~350 and ~210 μm, respectively.

COF during pin-on-desk Tests at different temperatures

FIGURE 1. Coefficient of Friction during pin-on-desk tests at different temperatures

Wear track depth of the alumina silicate ceramic plate at different temperatures

FIGURE 2. Evolution of wear track depth of the alumina silicate ceramic plate at different temperatures

The average wear rate and wear track depth of the alumina silicate ceramic plates at different temperatures were measured using NANOVEA Optical Profiler as summarized in FIGURE 3. The wear track depth is in agreement with that recorded using LVDT. The alumina silicate ceramic plate shows a substantially increased wear rate of ~0.5 mm3/Nm at 800°C, compared to the wear rates below 0.2mm3/N at temperatures below 400°C. The alumina silicate ceramic plate does not exhibit significantly enhanced mechanical/tribological properties after the short heating process, possessing a comparable wear rate before and after the heat treatment.

Alumina silicate ceramic, also knows as lava and wonderstone, is soft and machinable before heating treatment. A long process of firing at elevated temperatures up to 1093°C can substantially enhance its hardness and strength, after which diamond machining is required. Such a unique characteristic makes alumina silicate ceramic an ideal material for sculpture.

In this study, we show that heat treatment at a lower temperature that the one required for firing (800°C vs 1093°C) in a short time does not improve the mechanical and tribological characteristics of alumina silicate ceramic, making proper firing an essential process for this material before its usage in the real applications.


Wear rate and wear track depth of the sample at different temperatures 1

FIGURE 3. Wear rate and wear track depth of the sample at different temperatures

CONCLUSION

Based on the comprehensive tribological analysis in this study, we show that the alumina silicate ceramic plate exhibits comparable coefficient of friction at different temperatures from room temperature to 800°C. However, it shows a substantially increased wear rate of ~0.5 mm3/Nm at 800°C, demonstrating the importance of proper heat treatment of this ceramic.

NANOVEA Tribometers are capable of evaluating the tribological properties of materials for applications at high temperatures up to 1000°C. The function of in-situ COF and wear track depth measurements allows users to correlate different stages of wear process with the evolution of COF, which is critical in improving fundamental understanding of the wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of the materials used at elevated temperatures.

NANOVEA Tribometers offer precise and repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional high temperature wear, lubrication and tribo-corrosion modules available in one pre-integrated system. NANOVEA’s unmatched range is an ideal solution for determining the full range of tribological properties of thin or thick, soft or hard coatings, films and substrates.

Optional 3D Non-Contact Profilers are available for high resolution 3D imaging of wear tracks in addition to other surface measurements such as roughness.

IN-SITU WEAR MEASUREMENT

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Fretting Wear Testing Tribology

Fretting Wear Evaluation

Fretting Wear Evaluation

 

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Fretting Wear

EVALUATION

Author:

Duanjie Li, PhD

Revised by

Jocelyn Esparza

Fretting Wear Evaluation in Aviation
Fretting Wear Evaluation in Mining and Metallurgy

INTRODUCTION

Fretting is “a special wear process that occurs at the contact area between two materials under load and subject to minute relative motion by vibration or some other force.” When machines are in operation, vibrations inevitably occur in joints that are bolted or pinned, between components that are not intended to move, and in oscillating couplings and bearings. The amplitude of such relative sliding motion is often in the order of micrometers to millimeters. Such repetitive low-amplitude motion causes serious localized mechanical wear and material transfer at the surface, which may lead to reduced production efficiency, machine performance or even damage to the machine.

Importance of Quantitative
Fretting Wear Evaluation

Fretting wear often involves several complex wear mechanisms taking place at the contact surface, including two-body abrasion, adhesion and/or fretting fatigue wear. In order to understand the fretting wear mechanism and select the best material for fretting wear protection, reliable and quantitative fretting wear evaluation is needed. The fretting wear behavior is significantly influenced by the work environment, such as displacement amplitude, normal loading, corrosion, temperature, humidity and lubrication. A versatile tribometer that can simulate the different realistic work conditions will be ideal for fretting wear evaluation.

Steven R. Lampman, ASM Handbook: Volume 19: Fatigue and Fracture
http://www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/693/fretting-wear

MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE

In this study, we evaluated the fretting wear behaviors of a stainless steel SS304 sample at different oscillation speeds and temperatures to showcase the capacity of NANOVEA T2000 Tribometer in simulating the fretting wear process of metal in a well-controlled and monitored manner.

NANOVEA

T2000

TEST CONDITIONS

The fretting wear resistance of a stainless steel SS304 sample was evaluated by NANOVEA Tribometer using Linear Reciprocating Wear Module. A WC (6 mm diameter) ball was used as the counter material. The wear track was examined using a NANOVEA 3D non-contact profiler. 

The fretting test was performed at room temperature (RT) and 200 °C to study the effect of high temperature on the fretting wear resistance of the SS304 sample. A heating plate on the sample stage heated up the sample during the fretting test at 200 °C. The wear rate, K, was evaluated using the formula K=V/(F×s), where V is the worn volume, F is the normal load, and s is the sliding distance.

Please note that a WC ball as a counter material was used as an example in this study. Any solid material with different shapes and surface finish can be applied using a custom fixture to simulate the actual application situation.

TEST PARAMETERS

of the wear measurements

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The 3D wear track profile allows direct and accurate determination of the wear track volume loss calculated by the NANOVEA Mountains analysis software. 

The reciprocating wear test at a low speed of 100 rpm and room temperature exhibits a small wear track of 0.014 mm³. In comparison, the fretting wear test carried out at a high speed of 1000 rpm creates a substantially larger wear track with a volume of 0.12 mm³. Such an accelerated wear process may be attributed to the high heat and intense vibration generated during the fretting wear test, which promotes oxidation of the metallic debris and results in severe three-body abrasion. The fretting wear test at an elevated temperature of 200 °C forms a larger wear track of 0.27 mm³.

The fretting wear test at 1000 rpm has a wear rate of 1.5×10-4 mm³/Nm, which is nearly nine times compared to that in a reciprocating wear test at 100 rpm. The fretting wear test at an elevated temperature further accelerates the wear rate to 3.4×10-4 mm³/Nm. Such a significant difference in wear resistance measured at different speeds and temperatures shows the importance of proper simulations of fretting wear for realistic applications.

Wear behavior can change drastically when small changes in testing conditions are introduced into the tribosystem. The versatility of the NANOVEA Tribometer allows measuring wear under various conditions, including high temperature, lubrication, corrosion and others. The accurate speed and position control by the advanced motor enables users to perform the wear test at speeds ranging from 0.001 to 5000 rpm, making it an ideal tool for research/testing labs to investigate the fretting wear in different tribological conditions.

Fretting wear tracks at various conditions

under the optical microscope

Fretting wear tracks at various conditions under the optical microscope

3D WEAR TRACKs PROFILES

provide more insight in fundamental understanding
of the fretting wear mechanism

3d wear track profiles - fretting

measured using different test parameters

RESULT SUMMARY OF WEAR TRACKS

CONCLUSION

In this study, we showcased the capacity of the NANOVEA Tribometer in evaluating the fretting wear behavior of a stainless steel SS304 sample in a well-controlled and quantitative manner. 

The test speed and temperature play critical roles in the fretting wear resistance of the materials. The high heat and intense vibration during the fretting resulted in substantially accelerated wear of the SS304 sample by close to nine times. The elevated temperature of 200 °C further increased the wear rate to 3.4×10-4 mm3/Nm. 

The versatility of the NANOVEA Tribometer makes it an ideal tool for measuring fretting wear under various conditions, including high temperature, lubrication, corrosion and others.

NANOVEA Tribometers offer precise and repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional high temperature wear, lubrication and tribo-corrosion modules available in one pre-integrated system. Our unmatched range is an ideal solution for determining the full scope of tribological properties of thin or thick, soft or hard coatings, films and substrates.

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Ball Bearings: Wear Resistance Using Macro Tribology

 
 
 

INTRODUCTION


A ball bearing uses balls to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. The rolling balls between the bearing races produce much lower coefficient of friction (COF) compared to two flat surfaces sliding against each other. Ball bearings are often exposed to high contact stress levels, wear and extreme environmental conditions such as high temperatures. Therefore, wear resistance of the balls under high loads and extreme environmental conditions is critical for extending the lifetime of the ball bearing to cut down cost and time on repairs and replacements.

Ball bearings can be found in nearly all applications that involve moving parts. They are commonly used in transportation industries such as aerospace and automobile as well as the toy industry that manufactures items such as fidget spinner and skateboards.


BALL BEARING WEAR EVALUATION AT HIGH LOADS


Ball bearings can be made from an extensive list of materials. Commonly used materials range between metals like stainless steel and chrome steel or ceramics such as tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon nitride (Si3n4). To ensure that the manufactured ball bearings possess the required wear resistance ideal for the given application’s conditions, reliable tribological evaluations under high loads are necessary. Tribological testing aids in quantifying and contrasting the wear behaviors of diff­erent ball bearings in a controlled and monitored manner to select the best candidate for the targeted application.


MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVE


In this study, we showcase a Nanovea Tribometer as the ideal tool for comparing the wear resistance of different ball bearings under high loads.


Figure 1:  Setup of the bearing test.


TESTING PROCEDURE

 
The coefficient of friction, COF, and the wear resistance of the ball bearings made of different materials were evaluated by a Nanovea Tribometer. P100 grit sandpaper was used as the counter material. The wear scars of the ball bearings were examined using a Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profiler after the wear tests concluded. The test parameters are summarized in Table 1. The wear rate, K, was evaluated using the formula K=V/(F×s), where V is the worn volume, F is the normal load and s is the sliding distance. Ball wear scars were evaluated by a Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profiler to ensure precise wear volume measurement.

The automated motorized radial positioning feature allows the tribometer to decrease the radius of the wear track for the duration of a test. This test mode is called a spiral test and it ensures that the ball bearing always slides on a new surface of the sandpaper (Figure 2). It significantly improves the repeatability of the wear resistance test on the ball. The advanced 20bit encoder for internal speed control and 16bit encoder for external position control provide precise real-time speed and position information, allowing for a continuous adjustment of rotational speed to achieve constant linear sliding speed at the contact.

Please note that P100 Grit sandpaper was used to simplify the wear behavior between various ball materials in this study and can be substituted with any other material surface. Any solid material can be substituted to simulate the performance of a wide range of material couplings under actual application conditions, such as in liquid or lubricant.


Figure 2:  Illustration of the spiral passes for the ball bearing on the sandpaper.


Table 1:  Test parameters of the wear measurements.
 

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

 
Wear rate is a vital factor for determining the service lifetime of the ball bearing, while a low COF is desirable to improve the bearing performance and efficiency. Figure 3 compares the evolution of COF for di­fferent ball bearings against the sandpaper during the tests. The Cr Steel ball shows an increased COF of ~0.4 during the wear test, compared to ~0.32 and ~0.28 for SS440 and Al2O3 ball bearings. On the other hand, the WC ball exhibits a constant COF of ~0.2 throughout the wear test. Observable COF variation can be seen throughout each test which is attributed to vibrations caused by the sliding movement of the ball bearings against the rough sandpaper surface.


 
Figure 3:  Evolution of COF during the wear tests.


Figure 4 and Figure 5 compare the wear scars of the ball bearings after they were measured by an optical microscope and Nanovea Non-Contact optical profiler, respectively, and Table 2 summarizes the results of the wear track analysis. The Nanovea 3D profiler precisely determines the wear volume of the ball bearings, making it possible to calculate and compare the wear rates of different ball bearings. It can be observed that the Cr Steel and SS440 balls exhibit much larger flattened wear scars compared to the ceramic balls, i.e. Al2O3 and WC after the wear tests. The Cr Steel and SS440 balls have comparable wear rates of 3.7×10-3 and 3.2×10-3 m3/N m, respectively. In comparison, the Al2O3 ball shows an enhanced wear resistance with a wear rate of 7.2×10-4 m3/N m. The WC ball barely exhibits minor scratches on the shallow wear track area, resulting in a significantly reduced wear rate of 3.3×10-6 mm3/N m.


Figure 4:  Wear scars of the ball bearings after the tests.


Figure 5:  3D morphology of the wear scars on the ball bearings.
 

Table 2: Wear scar analysis of the ball bearings.


Figure 6 shows microscope images of the wear tracks produced on the sand paper by the four ball bearings. It is evident that the WC ball produced the most severe wear track (removing almost all sand particle in its path) and possesses the best wear resistance. In comparison, the Cr Steel and SS440 balls left a large amount of metal debris on the wear track of the sand paper.

These observations further demonstrate the importance of the benefit of a spiral test. It ensures that the ball bearing always slides on a new surface of the sandpaper, which significantly improves the repeatability of a wear resistance test.


Figure 6:  Wear tracks on the sand paper against different ball bearings.
 



CONCLUSION

The wear resistance of the ball bearings under a high pressure plays a vital role in their service performance. The ceramic ball bearings possess significantly enhanced wear resistance under high stress conditions and reduce the time and cost due to bearing repairing or replacement. In this study, the WC ball bearing exhibits a substantially higher wear resistance compared to the steel bearings, making it an ideal candidate for bearing applications where severe wear takes place.

A Nanovea Tribometer is designed with high torque capabilities for loads up to 2000 N and precise and controlled motor for rotational speeds from 0.01 to 15,000 rpm. It offers repeatable wear and friction testing using ISO and ASTM compliant rotative and linear modes, with optional high temperature wear and lubrication modules available in one pre-integrated system. This unmatched range allows users to simulate different severe work environments of the ball bearings including high stress, wear and high temperature, etc. It also acts as an ideal tool to quantitatively assess the tribological behaviors of superior wear resistant materials under high loads.

A Nanovea 3D Non-Contact Profiler provides precise wear volume measurements and acts as a tool to analyze the detailed morphology of the wear tracks, providing additional insights in the fundamental understanding of wear mechanisms.


Prepared by
Duanjie Li, PhD, Jonathan Thomas, and Pierre Leroux

Wood Wear Testing with Nanovea Tribometer

Wood has been used for thousands of years as a building material for homes, furniture and flooring. It has a combination of natural beauty, durability and restorability, making it an ideal candidate for flooring. Unlike carpet, hardwood floors keep their color for a long time and can be easily cleaned and maintained, however, being a natural material, most wood flooring requires the application of a surface finish to protect the wood from various kinds of damage such as scuffing and chipping over time. In this study, a Nanovea Tribometer was used to measure the wear rate and coefficient of friction (COF) to better under-stand the comparative performance of three wood finishes.

Click to read our application note!

Evaluating Brake Pads with Tribology


Importance of Evaluating Break Pad Performance

Brake pads are composites., a material made up of multiple ingredients, that must be able to satisfy a large number of safety requirements. Ideal brake pads have high coefficient of friction (COF), low wear rate, minimal noise, and remain reliable under varying environments. To ensure the quality of brake pads are able to satisfy their requirements, tribology testing can be used to identify critical specifications.

The importance of the reliability of brake pads is placed very high; the safety of passengers should never be neglected. Therefore, it is key to replicate operating conditions and identify possible points of failure. With the Nanovea Tribometer, a constant load is applied between a pin, ball, or flat and a constantly moving counter material. The friction between the two material is collected with a stiff load cell, allowing the collection of material properties at different loads and speeds and tested in high temperature, corrosive, or liquid environments.


Measurement Objective

In this study, the coefficient of friction of the brake pads were studied under a continuously increasing temperature environment from room temperature to 700°C. The environmental temperature was raised in-situ until noticeable failure of the brake pad was observed. A thermocouple was attached to the backside of the pin to measure the temperature near the sliding interface.


Test Procedure and Procedures




Results and Discussion

This study focuses mainly on the temperature at which brake pads start to fail. The COF obtained do not represent real-life values; the pin material is not the same as brake rotors. It should also be noted that the temperature data collected is the temperature of the pin and not the sliding interface temperature

 






At the start of the test (room temperature), the COF between the SS440C pin and brake pad gave a consistent value of approximately 0.2. As the temperature increased, the COF steadily increased and peaked at a value of 0.26 near 350°C. Past 390°C, the COF quickly starts decreasing. The COF began to increase back to 0.2 at 450°C but starts decreasing to a value of 0.05 shortly after.

The temperature at which the brake pads consistently failed is identified at temperatures above 500°C. Past this temperature, the COF was no longer able to retain the starting COF of 0.2.


Conclusion



The brake pads have shown consistent failure at a temperature past 500°C. Its COF of 0.2 slowly rises to a value of 0.26 before dropping down to 0.05 at the end of the test (580°C). The difference between 0.05 and 0.2 is a factor of 4. This means that the normal force at 580°C must be four times greater than at room temperature to achieve the same stopping force!

While not included in this study, the Nanovea Tribometer is also able to conduct testing to observe another important property of brake pads: wear rate. By utilizing our 3D non-contact profilometers, the volume of the wear track can be obtained to calculate how quickly samples wear. Wear testing can be conducted with the Nanovea Tribometer under different test conditions and environments to best simulate operating conditions.

Tribology on Piston Operations

Friction loss accounts for approximately 10% of total energy in fuel for a diesel engine [1]. 40-55% of the
friction loss comes from the power cylinder system. The loss of energy from friction can be diminished
with better understanding of the tribological interactions occurring in the power cylinder system.

A significant portion of the friction loss in the power cylinder system stems from the contact between
the piston skirt and the cylinder liner. The interaction between the piston skirt, lubricant, and cylinder
interfaces is quite complex due to the constant changes in force, temperature, and speed in a real life
engine. Optimizing each factor is key to obtaining optimal engine performance. This study will focus on
replicating the mechanisms causing friction forces and wear at the piston skirt-lubricant-cylinder liner
(P-L-C) interfaces.

Click to Learn about Piston Tribology!

A BETTER Look at Polycarbonate Lens

Polycarbonate lenses are commonly used in many optical applications. Their high impact resistance, low weight, and cheap cost of high-volume production makes them more practical than traditional glass in various applications [1].

Some of these applications require safety (e.g. safety eyewear), complexity (e.g. Fresnel lens) or durability (e.g. traffic light lens) criteria that are difficult to meet without the use of plastics. Its ability to cheaply meet many requirements while maintaining sufficient optical qualities makes plastic lenses stand out in its field. Polycarbonate lenses also have limitations. The main concern for consumers is the ease at which they can be scratched. To compensate for this, extra processes can be carried out to apply an anti-scratch coating.

Nanovea takes a look into some important properties of plastic lens by utilizing our three metrology instruments: Profilometer, Tribometer, and Mechanical Tester.

 

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